Pleistocene birds of the Palearctic


This site is intended as a supplement to my book Pleistocene birds of the Palearctic: a catalogue (Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club No. 27, Cambridge, Mass. 1998, ix + 720 pp.) which contains data on more than 1,400 sites with Pleistocene avifaunas throughout the Palearctic region. The book may be purchased from
The Nuttall Ornithological Club.
Paleornithology is however a very dynamic field at present, and new information is accumulating at a high rate. Therefore this site, which contains data which has become available since the manuscript was frozen in late 1996 as well as a number of older records which I had overlooked.
The format of the data is as close to that of the book as the limitations of HTML will permit and conventions and abbreviations are also the same. The site list is divided into two parts. Revised Sites which comprises sites included in my book but for which additional information has become available, and New Sites which are exactly what the name says. The current version contains 177 and 322 sites respectively in these categories. There is also a separate file for references.
Among the more notable records may be noted the first Pleistocene avifaunas to be reported from South Korea and Turkmenistan, the first certain fossil records of the Siberian Jay Perisoreus infaustus (from Strashnaya cave, Altai, Tonnelnaya and Nedostupnaya caves, Yenisey valley and Sesselfels in Bavaria), the first fossil record of Leucosticte arctoa from Denisova cave in the same area, of Cettia cetti (from Bulgaria (Cave No 16)) and of Polysticta stelleri (from Spain (Santa Catalina)), the first West Palearctic fossil records of Cyanopica cyanus (Vanguard and Gorham's caves, Gibraltar), a new species of owl Athene angelis from Corsica, a new Magpie, Pica moureri, from the Balearics and the first Middle Pleistocene record of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis, from Boxgrove in Sussex.
I am updating this site as new data becomes available and I am therefore grateful for any corrections and additional information.

This list is also available as a single file in PDF Format (627 kb).
If You would like to be informed by email when this site is updated, send a message to the address below.


Tommy Tyrberg
Kimstadsv. 37
SE-610 20 Kimstad
Sweden
tommy.tyrberg@norrkoping.mail.telia.com

Last updated February 24, 2008.

 

Part 1, Revised Sites (177)


Part 2, New Sites (322)


Part 3, References


 

Revised Sites

 

 

ARMENIA

 


AR 1 Jerevan

Type: c
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1974,1975, Burchak-Abramovich & Burchak 1982, (Erincjan 1970, Mezhlumyan 1972)
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Columba sp., Larus sp.,
Det.: Burchak-Abramovich

AR 2 Jerevan

Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov & Potapova 1988, Burchak-Abramovich & Burchak 1982, (Burchak-Abramovich & Mezhlumyan 1975)
Fauna: Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Anas platyrhynchos, Corvus corone
Det: Burchak-Abramovich


AUSTRIA


AU 2 Deutsch-Altenburg (Niederösterreich)

Alt: 210-312        Type: c
Sources: Anon 1998, Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Jánossy 1981b, Mlikovsky 1998a
Layer: Loc. 2C1 Date: EP Older Biharium
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Palaeocryptonyx donnezani, Aegolius funereus, Hirundo rustica, Turdus sp.
Layer:Loc 2D-E Date: EP
Fauna: Pinicola cf enucleator
Layer: Loc. 4B Date: EP Older Biharium MNQ 19
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus atavus, Perdix perdix, Glaucidium cf passerinum, Picus viridis, Dendrocopos major, Hirundo rustica, Lusciniasp., Turdus spp., Garrulus glandarius, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Emberiza sp.
Det.: Jánossy
Layer: Loc 12 Date EP Older Biharium
Fauna: cf Serinus sp.
Layer: Loc 26        Date: MP
Fauna: Francolinus capeki
Stored: Inst. Paläont. Univ. Wien

AU 3 Drachenhöhle bei Mixnitz (Steiermark)

Alt: 949
Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer 2000, Lambrecht 1933, Wolf 1938-41 (Abel & Kyrle 1931)
Layer: Obere Schichte Date: LP ”Mittelwürm” Aurignacien 14C=25,040±270 BP
Fauna: Accipiter nisus, Monticola saxatilis, Parus caeruleus, Lanius sp., Corvus monedula, Garrulus glandarius, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: Unstratified
Fauna: Dendrocopos leucotos
Det.: Lambrecht
Stored: Inst. Paläont. Univ. Wien, Landesmuseum Joanneum Graz, Naturhist. Mus. Wien

AU 5 Grosse Badlhöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 495 Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer & Reiner 1996, Fladerer 1993, Mottl 1953,1975, Musil 1980b
Layer: Bärenhalle 3 (=3*) Date: LP "Mittelwürminterstadial", UP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus
Det.: Mottl?
Layer: Unterer Eingang 4, "Kleinsäugerschicht" Date: LP LG Bölling/Dryas 2 14C=12430±95 BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Asio flammeus, Prunella collaris
Det.: Mlíkovský
Stored: Landesmuseum Joanneum
Notes: A. k. a. Badlhöhle, Badelhöhle

AU 6 Gudenushöhle (Niederösterreich)

Alt: 496         Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Lambrecht 1933, Mlíkovský in pr., Woldrich 1893 (Menghin 1919)
Date: LP (Mousterien and Magdalenien)
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Nyctea scandiaca, Alauda arvensis, Turdus spp., Corvus monedula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Emberiza spp.
Det.: Woldrich, Mlíkovský Stored: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Notes: A. k. a. Fuchsloch, Fuchsenlucken, Fuchshöhle, Hartensteinhöhle

AU 7 Hundsheim (Niederösterreich)

Alt: 270        Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Jánossy 1972a,1974c,1976c,1977a,1980,1981a, Lambrecht 1933, Mlíkovský 1998b, 2002 (Ehrenberg 1914)
Date: MP "Early MP" MNQ 22
Fauna: Tetrao praeurogallus, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Glaucidium cf passerinum, Strix intermedia, Aegypius monachus, Gyps fulvus, Otis tarda, Apus apus, Merops cf apiaster, Upupa phoeniculoides, Dendrocopos submajor, Dendrocopos praemedius, Turdus aff viscivorus, Turdus cf philomelos, Phylloscopus sp., Regulus sp., Muscicapa cf striata, Anthus cf cervinus, Pinicola sp., Aquila cf heliaca, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix cf perdix, Coturnix cf coturnix, Scolopax cf rusticola, Columba cf palumbus, Alauda cf arvensis, Hirundo cf rustica, Motacilla sp., Phoenicurus cf phoenicurus, Oenanthe cf oenanthe, Parus cf major, Parus cf palustris, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Jánossy, Mlíkovský
Notes: A. k. a. Hundsheimer Spalte, Knochenspalte

AU 8 Hundssteig bei Krems (Niederösterreich)

Alt: 250 Type: o
Sources: Fladerer 2002, Fladerer & Salcher 2003, Lambrecht 1933, Wiegers 1912
Date: LP Probably Aurignacian c. 27,000 - 35,000 BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao urogallus, Branta cf bernicla, Turdus cf philomelos
Det: Maska, Rabeder
Notes: A. k. a. Krems-Hundssteig.

AU 9 Luegloch (Steiermark)

Alt: 550 Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer & Rainer 1996, Mottl 1953,1975, Musil 1980b, Spahni 1954
Layer: 4 Date: LP, LG?
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Tetrastes bonasia, Strix uralensis, Asio flammeus, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Gelbbrauner Lehm
Layer: 3 Date: LP, Late Würmian Pleniglacial?
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Nyctea scandiaca, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Nagerschicht, Lössartiges hellgelbes sediment
Layer: 2 Date: LP UP (Gravettian?) Mid-Würmian?
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Aegolius funereus, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Grauer sand
Layer: 1 Date: LP Mid-Würmian?
Fauna: Aythya ferina?, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Strix uralensis, cf Asio otus, cf Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Rostroter Lehm
Det.: Mottl?
Notes: A. k. a. Oxenloch.

AU 11 Repolusthöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 525
Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer 1993,2000, Jánossy 1976c, 1978, 1989a, Mlíkovský 1998b, Mottl 1951,1975, Musil 1980b
Layer: 4 (Grauer Sand - Obere Kulturschicht) Date: MP Late MP IS 6-7, Ca 130-250 KA BP
Fauna: Aegypius monachus, Aquila sp.
Layer: 5 (Rostbrauner Phosphaterde - Untere Kulturschicht) Date: MP Late MP, IS 6-7, ca 130-250 KA BP
Fauna: Aegypius monachus, Aquila sp., Tetrao tetrix
Notes:
Det.: Mottl, Jánossy        Stored: Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz

AU 12 Salzofenhöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 2005         Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Ehrenberg 1959
Date: LP 14C=31,200±1,100, 34,000±3,000, >44,500, >54,000 BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Fringilla montif ringilla, Emberiza citrinella
Stored: Bad Auseer Kammerhofmuseum, Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Inst. Paläont. Univ. Wien

AU 13 Schlenkendurchgangshöhle (Salzburg)

Alt: 1590         Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Ehrenberg & Mais 1969,1977
Date: LP LG?
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus?
Det.: Frey & Rokitansky
Notes: A. k. a. Schlenkenhöhle

AU 14 Schreiberwandhöhle (Oberösterreich)

Alt: 2250         Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Ehrenberg & Sickenberg 1929, Lambrecht 1933, Musil 1980b, Wolf 1938-41
Layer: Phosphaterde        Date: LP Mid-Würmian Interstadial?
Fauna: Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus monedula, Carduelis cannabina, Lanius excubitor
Det.: Lambrecht
Stored: Inst. Paläont. Univ. Wien
Notes: A. k. a. Bärenhöhle am Dachstein, Adamek-Höhle.

AU 22 Grosse Ofenbergerhöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 766        Type: c
Sources: Bochenski & Tomek 1994, Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer 2000, Fladerer & Reiner 1996
Date: LP Mid-Late Würmian 14C = 13,690 ± 100 BP
Fauna: Anser erythropus, Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco sp., Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Bonasa bonasia, Gallus gallus, cf Gallinula chloropus, Scolopax rusticola, Gallinago media, Lymnocryptes minimus, Tringa sp., Nyctea scandiaca, Asio flammeus, Eremophila alpestris, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica, Cinclus cinclus, Phoenicurus ochruros, cf Oenanthe oenanthe, Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Emberiza sp., Montifringilla nivalis
Det: Bochenski & Tomek
Stored. Steiermärkischen Landesmuseum, Inst. für Geol. u. Pal. der Univ. Graz, Naturhist. Mus. Wien
Note: A. k. a. Of(f)enbergerhöhle 1, Of(f)enberger Südosthöhle

AU 24 Knochenhöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 860        Type: c
Sources: Bochenski & Tomek 1994, Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer 2000, Fladerer & Reiner 1996
Date: LP 14C=14,070±100 BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, cf Gallinula chloropus, Crex crex, Nyctea scandiaca, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det: Bochenski & Tomek
Note: A. k. a. Knochenhöhle bei Kapellen

AU 25 Nixloch (Oberösterreich)

Alt: 770        Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Mlíkovský 1992a, Bochenski & Tomek 1994
Layer: B
Date: ”Hochglazial” 14C=18,510±580 BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A (part)
Date: LG 14C=10,550±150 BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrastes bonasia, Charadrius morinellus, Gallinago media, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Turdus sp., Pinicola enucleator
Layer: A (part)
Date: LG-Early Holocene
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Turdus sp
Layer: A (Disturbed)         Date: LG-Holocene
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Bonasa bonasia, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Gallinula chloropus, Charadrius morinellus, Philomachus pugnax, Gallinago media, Surnia ulula, Aegolius funereus, cf Bubo/Nyctea sp., Picus canus, Hirundo daurica/rustica, Prunella collaris, Erithacus rubecula, Turdus iliacus, Turdus spp., Lanius excubitor, Garrulus glandarius, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pinicola enucleator
Det: Mlíkovský
Stored: Institut für Paläontologie der Universität Wien
Notes: A. k. a. Nixhöhle, Nixlucke, Nixgrotte

AU 26 Tropfsteinhöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 478
Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer 1993 (Mottl 1975)
Layer: 20-25
Date: MP/LP (redeposition) 14C=24,200±900, 27,000+4,500-2,900 BP
Fauna: Falco subbuteo, Lagopus sp., Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: 18-19        
Date: LP "Hochglazial - frühem Spätglazial"
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax.
Layer: 17
Date: MP/LP (redeposition)
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Mottl 0-1,3 m
Date: MP/LP (redeposition)
Fauna: Tetrao urogallus, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: Unstratified
Date: MP/LP (redeposition)
Fauna: Aegypius monachus, Falco cf peregrinus, Tetrao urogallus, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Stored: Inst. Paläont. Univ. Wien, Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz
Notes: A k a Kugelsteinhöhle II, Bärenhöhle II am Kugelstein, Tropfsteinhöhle bei Kugelwand.

AU 27 Tunnelhöhle (Steiermark)

Alt: 485
Type: c
Sources: Döppes & Rabeder 1997, Fladerer 1993, (Mottl 1975)
Layer: 24        
Date: LP Glacial Maximum 14C=18,080±140 BP
Fauna: Lagopus sp.
Layer: Roter Lehm
Date: LP Mid-Würmian?
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Gelbbr. Sand
Date: LP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer. Grauer Sand
Date: LP
Fauna: Aegypius monachus, Falco peregrinus, Lagopus sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: Unstratified
Date: LP
Fauna: Aegypius monachus, Falco peregrinus, Lagopus sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus
Stored: Inst. Paläont. Univ. Wien, Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz Notes: A k a Kugelsteinhöhle III, Bärenhöhle 3 am Kugelstein, Friedrichshöhle


AZERBAIJAN

AZ 1 Azykh (Nagorno Karabakh)

Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov & Potapova 1988, Burchak-Abramovich 1991, Burchak-Abramovich & Aliev 1989, 1990, Burchak-Abramovich & Burchak 1982, Ganja & Burchak-Abramovich 1992, Potapova 2000
Layer: Cultural Layer V
Date: MP "Middle" Acheulean, MNQ 22
Fauna: Anas acuta, Aquila sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Buteo buteo, Haliaetus albicilla, Aegypius monachus, Gypaetus osseticus, Falco biarmicus, Falco vespertinus, Falc naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix perdix, Alectoris graeca mediterranea, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Columba palumbus, Bubo bubo, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Passeriformes sp.
Layer: Cultural Layer VI
Date: MP Early Acheulean, MNQ 21
Fauna: Falco vespertinus
Det: Burchak-Abramovich, Potapova
Notes: A. k. a. Asikhskaya, Asychskaya. The dating of this site is controversal, some sources consider it older than the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary which would put it in EP (MNQ 20) , however this probably only applies to layers VII-X..

AZ 2 Binagady

Type: o
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1962,1965c,1966a,1968a,b,1975, Panteleyev & Burchak-Abramovich 2000a,b
Date: MP/LP ca 95-120 KA BP?
Fauna: Podiceps auritus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Pelecanus crispus palaeocrispus, Platalea leucorodia, Ciconia nigra, Plegadis falcinellus, Ardea cinerea, Ardea purpurea, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Bubulcus ibis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Anser azerbaidzhanicus, Anser anser, Anser albifrons, Branta ruficollis, Tadorna ferruginea, Tadorna tadorna, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Anas platyrhynchos palaeoboschas, Anas penelope, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Aythya marila asphaltica, Melanitta fusca, Clangula hyemalis, Bucephala clangula, Mergus albellus, Falco peregrinus, Falco tinnunculus, Accipiter gentilis, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus aeruginosus, Milvus sp., Haliaeetus albicilla, Neophron percnopterus, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila heliaca, Aquila rapax, Aquila clanga, Aquila pomarina, Hieraaetus pennatus, Buteo rufinus, Perdix perdix, Alectoris graeca, Columba livia, Pterocles orientalis, Fulica atra, Porzana sp., Grus leucogeranus, Grus bogatshevi, Grus grus, Anthropoides virgo, Otis tarda, Tetrax tetrax, Burhinus oedicnemus, Pluvialis squatarola, Pluvalis fulva, Charadrius morinellus, Vanellus vanellus, Calidris sp., Philomachus pugnax, Philomachus binagadensis, Tringa erythropus, Tringa totanus, Tringa nebularia, Tringa ochropus, Tringa glareola, Actitis hypoleucos, Xenus cinereus, Limosa limosa?, Limosa lapponica, Numenius arquata, Numenius tenuirostris, Numenius phaeopus, Gallinago gallinago, Larus argentatus, Larus hyperboreus?, Nyctea scandiaca, Bubo bubo, Bubo binagadensis, Asio flammeus, Asio otus, Otus scops?, Athene noctua, Aegolius funereus, Calandrella rufescens, Melanocorypha bimaculata, Turdus merula, Turdus iliacus, Garrulus glandarius assiduus, Corvus corax, Corvis ruficollis, Corvus corone, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus monedula, Pica pica
Det.: Serebrovskii, Burchak-Abramovich, Panteleyev



BELGIUM



BE 2 Goyet (Namur)

Alt: 140 Type: c
Sources: Friant 1950, 1952, Mlíkovský 2000a
Date: LP Early Aurignacian - Mousterian
Fauna: Aegypius monachus        
Det.: Friant, Mlíkovský        Stored: Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique Bruxelles

BE 11 Trou de Chaleux (Namur)

Type: c
Sources: Charles 1998, Dupont 1872, Lambrecht 1933, Wolf 1938-41
Date: LP LG Magdalenian Bölling 14C=12370-12990 BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Anas sp., Haliaeetus albicilla, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Tetrao urogallus, Nyctea scandiaca?, Bubo bubo, Asio otus, Turdus pilaris, Garrulus glandarius, Corvus corax
Det.: Dupont, Harrison         Stored: IRScNB
Notes: A. k. a. Trou du Chaleux.

BE 15 Trou des Nutons (Namur)

Type: c
Sources: Charles 1998, Dupont 1872, Lambrecht 1933, Wolf 1938-41
Date: LP LG Magdalenian 14C=12,630±140 BP
Fauna: Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos,, Haliaeetus albicilla, Perdix perdix, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Tetrao urogallus, Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus frugilegus, Pica pica
Det.: Dupont
Stored: IRScNB


BULGARIA

BU 2 Cave N:o 16

Alt: 200
Type: c
Sources: Boev 1992,1993,1995,1997,1998a,1998e,1999a,1999b,2001a
Date: LP ca 18-50 KA BP
Fauna: Accipiter nisus, Accipiter sp., Falco tinnunculus Falco vespertinus, Falco sp., Coturnix coturnix, Perdix perdix, Perdix cf paleoperdix, Perdix/Alectoris sp., Phasianus colchicus, Lagopus sp., Tetrao tetrix, Tetrastes bonasia, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Porzana parva/pusilla, Gallinula chloropus, Larus cf ridibundus, Columba livia, Columba livia/oenas, Otus scops, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Apus melba, Apus apus, Dendrocopos minor, Alauda arvensis, Delichon urbica, Alaudidae sp. Anthus trivialis, Bombycilla garrulus, Erithacus rubecula, Cettia cetti, Turdus merula, Turdus pilaris, Turdus philomelos, Turdus torquatus, Turdus sp., Monticola cf saxatilis, Sitta europaea, Lanius collurio, Sturnus vulgaris, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pica pica, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Corvus monedula, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax, Carduelis cannabina, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Loxia curvirostra, Passer montanus, Passer sp., Fringilla coelebs, Fringilla sp.
Det.: Boev

BU 3 Morovitsa cave

Alt; 690
Type: c
Sources: Boev 1992,1993,1995,1999a,2001a,2006c
Date: MP MNQ 23, ca 180-350 KA BP
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Alauda arvensis, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Boev

BU 4 Temnata Cave

Alt: 200
Type: c
Sources: Boev 1994, 1998,1999a,2001a,2002,2006c
Layer: 1a Date: LP
Fauna: Buteo sp., Galliformes, Lullula arborea, Riparia cf riparia, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus monedula
Layer: 3a Date: LP 14C=13600±200, 13920±480 BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Tetrao sp., Strix aluco, Asio otus, Aegolius funereus, Apus apus, Dendrocopos minor, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Sturnus vulgaris, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus sp.
Layer: 3c Date: LP
Fauna: Anatidae, Alauda cf arvensis, Oenanthe oenanthe, Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus monedula
Layer: 3d Date: LP 14C=28900±1100, 29700±1600 BP
Fauna: Aquila pomarina, Aegypius monachus, Circus cyaneus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco sp., Alectoris graeca, Alectoris sp.?, Perdix perdix, Streptopelia turtur, Columba oenas, Bubo bubo, Alauda arvensis, Pica pica, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Corvus monedula
Layer: 3a/d Date: LP
Fauna: Turdus merula
Layer: 3c/d Date: LP
Fauna: Falco vespertinus, Crex crex
Layer: 3g Date: LP ca 30 Ka BP
Fauna: Crex crex, Pica pica
Layer: 3 Date: LP
Fauna: Falco sp., Perdix perdix, Lanius collurio, Corvus monedula
Layer: 3/4 Date: LP 14C=31900±1600 BP (top of layer 4), 45000±7000, 46000±8000 BP (layer 4)
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: IV
Date: EP, ca 1.6 Ma BP
Fauna: Buteo sp., Coturnix coturnix, Alectoris graeca, Alauda arvensis, Lullula arborea, cf Riparia riparia, Luscinia cf megarhynchos, Turdus viscivorus, , Corvus monedula, Pyrrhoorax graculus
Det.: Boev Stored: National Museum of Natural History Sofia
Notes: A. k. a. Temnata Doubka, Temnata Doupka and Temnata Dupka.

BU 6 Slivnitsa

Type: c
Sources: Boev 1995,1996,1998c,1999a,2000a,d.
Date: LPl/EP first half of MN 18a
Fauna: Botaurinae sp., Geronticus balcanicus, Anas sp., cf Aquila sp., Falco cf tinnunculus, Chauvireria bulgarica, Lullula sp., Turdus cf philomelos, Turdidae sp., Pyrrhocorax sp., Corvus cf monedula, Corvus sp., Corvus cf praecorax, Coccothraustes balcanicus, Emberiza sp.
Det: Boev
Stored: NMNHS
Notes: A. k. a. Slivnica



CZECHIA

CZ 33 Prezletice (Bohemia)


Type: o
Sources: Jánossy 1983a, Mlíkovský 2002
Date: MP Early MP "younger Cromerian" c. 590-660 KA BP, MNQ 21
Fauna: Podiceps cf cristatus, Podiceps aff grisegena, Podiceps cf nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Egretta cf garzetta, Platalea cf leucorodia, Cygnus olor, Cygnus bewickii, Anser subanser, Tadorna tadorna , Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Aythya nyroca Bucephala clangula, Oxyura leucocephala, Haliaeetus angustipes, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Fulica aff atra, Gallinula aff chloropus, Limosa aff limosa, Porzana cf parva, Gallinago cf gallinago, Phalaropus aff fulicarius, Larus cf ridibundus, Sturnus cf vulgaris
Det.: Jánossy, Mlíkovský

CZ 41 Stránská Skála (Moravia)

Alt: 310 Type: c
Sources: Capek 1925, Jánossy 1972a, Lambrecht 1933, Mlíkovský 1996, 2002a, b, Musil 1965c,1968, Skutil & Stehlik 1939
Layer: "Capek 1-3" (Fissure 1-3).
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas cf querquedula, Mergus connectens, Falco sp., Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao praeurogallus, Perdix aff perdix, Vanellus cf vanellus, Strix intermedia, Apus aff apus, Corvus cf monedula, Pyrrhocorax aff graculus, Carduelis aff carduelis?
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: ”Capek 4a" (Fissure 4a)
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao cf partium, Crex cf crex, Corvus cf monedula, Pyrrhocorax aff graculus, cf Prunella collaris
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 4c" (Fissure 4c).
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas cf querquedula, cf Anas clypeata, cf Aythya nyroca, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao cf partium, Tetrao praeurogallus, Apus aff apus, Corvus cf monedula, Sturnus cf vulgaris
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 5a oben".
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Podiceps aff grisegena, Anas cf platyrhynchos, Anas cf querquedula, Anas cf penelope, Anas cf acuta, cf Anas clypeata, Aythya cf fuligula, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao cf partium, Tetrao praeurogallus, Perdix aff perdix, Coturnix cf coturnix, Porzana cf porzana, Otis kalmani, Gallinago cf gallinago, Limosa aff limosa, Strix aff nebulosa, Asio flammeus, Apus aff apus, Dendrocopos cf major, cf Prunella collaris, Turdus cf viscivorus, Corvus cf corax, Corvus corone, Corvus cf monedula, Garrulus aff glandarius, Pyrrhocorax aff graculus
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 5a unten".
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas cf platyrhynchos, Anas cf querquedula, Bucephala clangula, Accipiter cf nisus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao cf partium, Tetrao praeurogallus, Perdix aff perdix, Coturnix cf coturnix, Otis kalmani, Vanellus cf vanellus, Charadrius aff morinellus, aff Pluvialis squatarola, Gallinago cf media, Scolopax cf rusticola, Limosa aff limosa, Tringa aff ochropus, Tringa aff totanus, Philomachus aff pugnax?, aff Chlidonias niger, Strix intermedia, Strix aff nebulosa, Asio aff flammeus, Turdus cf pilaris, Pyrrhocorax aff graculus, cf Loxia curvirostra?, Emberiza cf citrinella
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 5a ober der Schicht mit Desmana".
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus atavus, Tetrao cf partium, Corvus corone
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 5b".
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas cf platyrhynchos, Anas cf querquedula, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Lagopus lagopus
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 7"
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Asio aff flammeus
Layer: ”Capek 8”
Date: MP MNQ 22 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus atavus, Perdix aff perdix
Layer: "Capek 9a-höhle".
Date: MP/LP (probably mixed material)
Fauna: Tadorna tadorna, Anas cf platyrhynchos, Anas cf querquedula, Anas cf strepera, cf Aythya nyroca, Pernis cf apivorus, Haliaeetus aff albicilla, Falco cf vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Falco peregrinus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao cf partium, Tetrao praeurogallus, Perdix aff perdix, Coturnix cf coturnix, Crex cf crex Vanellus cf vanellus, Scolopax cf rusticola, Tringa aff erythropus, Calidris aff alpina, Larus aff canus, Columba aff palumbus, Cuculus aff canorus, Surnia capeki, Aegolius aff funereus, Caprimulgus capeki, Apus aff apus, Apus submelba, Picus cf canus, Dendrocopos cf major, Alauda cf arvensis, Anthus aff trivialis, Hirundo cf rustica, Turdus cf viscivorus, Luscinia cf svecica, Oenanthe aff oenanthe, Turdus cf pilaris, Turdus cf merula, Parus cf caeruleus, Sitta cf europaea, Sturnus cf vulgaris, Corvus cf corax, Corvus corone, Corvus cf monedula, Coccothraustes cf coccothraustes, Carduelis aff carduelis?, Pyrrhula aff pyrrhula, Emberiza cf citrinella
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Capek 9b"
Date: LP?
Fauna: Anas cf penelope, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Tetrao cf partium, Perdix aff perdix, Coturnix cf coturnix, Dendrocopos cf major, Alauda cf arvensis, Turdus cf pilaris, Parus cf major, Sitta cf europaea, Corvus cf monedula
Notes: Musil (1968) gives a slightly different faunal list.
Layer: "Absolon, II Höhle"
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Tadorna tadorna, Anas querquedula,Mergus connectens, Accipiter gentilis, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo, Falco cf peregrinus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Palaeocryptonyx donnezani,Coturnix coturnix, Charadrius morinellus, cf Vanellus vanellus, Gallinago media, cf Tringa sp., , Columba palumbus, Strix nebulosa, Glaucidium passerinum, Asio otus, Apus apus, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Corvus monedula,Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: "Sammlung Knies"
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Mergus connectens
Layer: "Sammlung Musil, Nová Velká jeskyne"
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anser aff anser, Tetrao praeurogallus, Perdix aff perdix, Turdus cf viscivorus, Corvus cf monedula
Layer: Unstratified, "ohne Fundstelle"
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anser aff albifrons, Tadorna sp., Anas cf platyrhynchos, Mergus connectens, Aquila aff rapax, Falco cf vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao cf partium, Perdix aff perdix, Francolinus capeki, Coturnix cf coturnix, aff Pluvialis squatarola, Scolopax cf rusticola, aff Sterna hirundo, Columba aff palumbus, Upupa sp., Delichon cf urbica, Oenanthe aff oenanthe, Corvus cf corax, Corvus corone, Corvus cf monedula
Det.: Jánossy
Layer: M. F. 3
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Pluvialis squatarola, Limosa spp., Apus apus, Motacilla sp., Corvus monedula
Layer: M. F. 4
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Vanellus vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Gallinago gallinago, Scolopax rusticola, Tringa spp., Asio flammeus, Apus apus, Corvus monedula
Layer: M. F. 5
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Fulica atra, Himantopus himantopus, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa spp., Numenius phaeopus, Tringa spp., Larus canus, Athene noctua, Asio flammeus, Acrocephalus sp., Corvus cf corone
Layer: M. F. 6
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Francolinus minor, Charadrius sp., Vanellus vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa spp., Numenius phaeopus, Tringa spp., Cuculus canorus, Apus apus, Delichon urbica, Anthus sp.
Layer: M. F. 7
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas clypeata, Tetrao tetrix, Vanellus vanellus, Calidris sp., Lymnocryptes minimus
Layer: M. F. 8
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Falco peregrinus, Bonasa bonasia, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Francolinus minor, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa spp., Numenius phaeopus, Tringa spp., Asio flammeus, Riparia riparia, Delichon urbica, Pica pica, Corvus monedula
Layer: M. F. 9
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Bonasa bonasia, Coturnix coturnix, Tringa spp., Delichon urbica
Layer: M. F. 10
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Francolinus subfrancolinus, Gallinula gigantea, Fulica atra, Vanellus vanellus, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa spp., Strix aluco, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica, Corvus monedula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Layer: M. F. 11
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Bucephala clangula, Falco peregrinus, Tetrao urogallus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Francolinus minor, Crex crex, Gallinula gigantea, Vanellus vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa spp., Numenius phaeopus, Pica pica
Layer: M. F. 12
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Asio flammeus
Layer: M. F. 13
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Podiceps grisegena, Anser sp., Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Bucephala clangula, Mergus serrator, Mergus connectens, Accipiter nisus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco peregrinus, Bonasa bonasia, Tetrao urogallus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Francolinus minor, Francolinus capeki, Francolinus subfrancolinus, Crex crex, Gallinula gigantea, Fulica atra, Tetrax tetrax, Charadrius sp., Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa spp., Numenius phaeopus, Athene noctua, Strix aluco, Asio flammeus, Apus apus, Picus canus, Dendrocopos major, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica, Anthus sp., Turdus spp., Garrulus glandarius, Pica pica, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Corvus pliocaenus, Corvus cf corone, Corvus monedula
Layer: M. F. 14
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Falco subbuteo, Falco peregrinus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Lymnocryptes minimus, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Tringa spp., Delichon urbica
Layer: M. F. 15
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Bucephala clangula, Mergus merganser, Mergus serrator, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana sp., Fulica atra, Lymnocryptes minimus, Gallinago media, Scolopax rusticola, Numenius phaeopus, Columba palumbus, Athene noctua, Dendrocopos major, Delichon urbica, Pica pica, Corvus pliocaenus, Corvus cf corone, Corvus monedula
Layer: M. F. 16
Date: MP MNQ 21 "Upper Biharian"
Fauna: Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Falco tinnunculus, Coturnix coturnix, Francolinus subfrancolinus
Det: Mlíkovský
Stored: Moravské Museum, Brno
Notes: M. F. 3/16 is short for "Musil's Talus Fan" layers 3-16. A. k. a. Lateiner-Berg-Grotten


GERMANY


BRD 15 Breitenfurter Höhle (Bayern)


Type: c
Sources: Heller 1956
Layer: C
Date: Early Würm II to Late Würm III
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Corvus monedula
Layer: C/D
Date: Würm I/II Interstadial to Late Würm III
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus
Layer: D
Date: Würm I/II Interstadial and Early Würm II, Mousterian
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Corvus monedula, Nucifraga cayocatactes


BRD 40 Geissenklösterle (Baden-Württemberg)

Alt: 590 Type: c
Sources: Hahn & Münzel 1995, Müller-Beck et al. 1985, Münzel 2003, Weniger 1982
Layer: AH IIab Date: LP Aurignacian 14C = 30,6-36,8 KA BP, TL =36,8 KA BP
Fauna: Cygnuscf cygnus
Layer: Aurignacian
Fauna: Garrulus glandarius, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Date: LP Gravettian
Fauna: Aquila sp.
Date: LP Magdalenian
Fauna: Lagopus sp.
Layer: AH Io Date: LP Early Magdalenian, c. 13,000 BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus mutus, Lagopus lagopus, Perdix perdix, Rallus aquaticus, Glaucidium passerinum, Hirundo rustica, Cinclus cinclus, Turdus viscivorus
Det.: Krönneck, Mourer-Chauviré


BRD 90 Meiendorf (Schleswig-Holstein)
Type: o
Sources: Andree 1939, Bratlund 1996, Burdukiewicz 1986, Heinrich 1977 (Krause 1937, Krause & Kollau 1943)
Date: LP LG Hamburgian 14C=12,360±110, 12,460±60 BP Late Bölling
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus, Anser cf anser, Anser sp., Branta leucopsis, Anas sp., Lagopus lagopus, Porzana porzana, Grus grus, Larus marinus/hyperboreus
Det.: Krause, Kollau


BRD 91 Mertloch (Rheinland-Pfalz)

Type: o
Sources: Baales & von Berg 1997, von Berg 1994
Date: LP Alleröd 11,030 BP
Fauna: Tetrao urogallus, Tetrao tetrix
Det.: Joachim, Rheinwald & Spittler
Notes: Footprints in ash from the Laacher-See caldera eruption.

BRD 93 Miesenheim 2 (Rheinland-Pfalz)

Type: o
Sources: Street in litt and 1993.
Date: LP LG Late Alleröd 14C=10820-11460 BP
Fauna: Lagopus sp.?, Tetrao tetrix?
Det.: Street

BRD 116 Salzgitter-Lebenstedt (Niedersachsen)

Alt: 76 Type: o
Sources: Kleinschmidt 1953a,b, Mlíkovský 1998b
Date: LP Early Weichselian 14C= 36,000±550, 39300±800, 55600±900 BP
Fauna: Cygnus sp., Anas sp., Aegypius monachus
Det: Kleinschmidt, Mlíkovský
Stored: Landesmuseum Braunschweig
Notes: 14C minimum age only. Dating doubtful, might well be from the penultimate glaciation.

BRD 124 Seveckenberg bei Quedlinburg (Sachsen-Anhalt)

Type: c
Sources: Nehring 1880,1905, Mlíkovsky 2002 (Giebel 1850)
Date: LP
Fauna: Anser sp., Anas cf platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Milvus milvus, Lagopus sp., Otis tarda, Hirundo rustica, Corvus corax , Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Giebel, Nehring, Mlíkovský
Notes: A. k. a. Quenickenberg. The determinations by Giebel are questionable. Hystrix is present which may indicate early Würmian age.

BRD 131 Stellmoor (Schleswig-Holstein)

Type: o
Sources: Bratlund 1999, Burdukiewicz 1986, Heinrich 1977 (Krause & Kollau 1943)
Date: LP LG Hamburgian 14C=12180±130, 12190±125 BP (Bölling)
Fauna: Cygnus sp., Anser sp., Anatidarum, Lagopus lagopus, Calidris alpina
Date: LP LG Ahrensburgian (late Dryas 3) 14C= 9810-10140 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Cygnus cygnus, Anser sp., Anatinae sp., Mergus sp.?, Aquila chrysaetos?, Lagopus lagopus, Tringa nebularia, Larus argentatus, Larus marinus, Laridae sp., Strigidae sp.?, Alaudidae sp.?, Corvus sp.
Det.: Krause, Kollau, Bratlund
Stored: Archäologisches Landesmuseum, Schloss Gottorp

BRD 141 Untermassfeld (Thüringen)

Type: o
Sources: Jánossy 1988, Mlíkovský 2002, Mourer-Chauviré 1993 (Jánossy 1997)
Date: EP Lowest Biharian, "Allophaiomys-Zone" MNQ 20, Jaramillo, ca 1.0-1.1 Ma BP, MIS 31
Fauna: Cygnus cf olor, Anser aff subanser, Haliaeetus aff angustipes, Francolinus capeki, Turdus aff philomelos, Corvus aff jánossyi, Garrulus aff glandarius
Det.: Jánossy

BRD 142 Untertürkheim, Biedermannscher Steinbruch (Baden-Württemberg)

Alt: 230
Type: o
Sources: Adam, Bloos & Ziegler 1987, Andree 1939, Wagner 1991, Wenzel 1998 (Berckhemer 1935)
Layer: Unterer Travertin
Date: LP Eem (IS 5e) TL Travertine = 105±4, 105±8, 106±6, 133±19 KA
Fauna: Cygnus sp., Anser anser, Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Perdix perdix?, Rallus aquaticus? Porzana cf parva, Tyto alba?, Eremophila cf alpestris, Hirundo/Riparia sp., Anthus pratensis, Anthus sp., Motacilla sp., Prunella sp., Erithacus rubecula?, Luscinia sp., Oenanthe sp., Turdus cf iliacus, Sylvia sp., Fringilla montifringilla, Fringilla coelebs, Loxia cf curvirostra, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Montifringilla nivalis, Carduelis chloris, Fringillidae sp., Emberiza cf citrinella
Layer: Steppennagerschicht
Date: LP Probably IS 5d
Fauna: Cygnus sp., Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos?, Mergus merganser, Mergus merganser/serrator, Falco cf columbarius, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix perdix, Hirundo/Riparia sp., Phoenicurus sp.?, Oenanthe sp.?, Turdus sp., Fringilla coelebs, Carduelis chloris?, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Montifringilla nivalis
Det.: Soergel, Götz, Mörike
Notes: A. k. a. Stuttgart-Untertürkheim.

BRD 147 Weimar-Ehringsdorf (Thüringen)

Alt: 240 Type: o
Sources: Grimm 1970, Heinrich & Jánossy 1978b, Jánossy 1975a, Schmidt 1964, Stephan 1975a,b
Layer: Obere Travertin.
Date: MP, Late IS 7, TL=100-130 KA BP, ESR=200-220 KA BP
Fauna: Anas aff acuta, Tetrao tetrix
Det.: Jánossy
Date: MP?
Fauna: Gavia sp.?, Bubulcus ibis?/Egretta garzetta?, Anser anser?, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata?, Aythya nyroca?, Calidris alpina?, Caprimulgus sp.?
Det.: Stephan
Notes: Eggshells, identifications very doubtful
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix
Det.: Jánossy
Layer: MP ”Pre-Würm”, IS 7
Fauna: Cygnus cf olor
Det: Schmidt
Notes: Eggshell


CHINA

CI 28 Jing Niu Shan (Liaoning)

Type: c
Alt: 30
Sources: Hou 1989, Zhang et al. 1993
Date: Late MP ca 280 KA BP
Fauna: Ciconia sp., Aythya sp., Accipiter sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Falco sp., Francolinus pintadeanus, Coturnix coturnix, Bambusicola sp., Phasianus sp., Phasianus colchicus, Charadrius sp., Scolopax rusticola, Tyto jinniushanensis, Asio sp., Parus sp., Podoces hendersoni
Det.: Hou
Notes: A. k. a. Jinniushan, Niuxinshan.

CI 53 Xujia Yao (Shanxi)

Type: o
Sources: Jia 1980, Jia & Wei 1980, Rich et al. 1986
Date: LP? ca 100 000 BP?
Fauna: Struthio sp., Accipitridae sp.
Notes: A. k. a. Xujiayao and Hsuchiayao


CYPRUS

CY 1 Akrotiri Aetokremnos


Type: c
Sources: Simmons 1991, Mourer-Chauviré 1999 and pers. com.
Date: LP LG ca 10,500 BP
Layer: Surface
Fauna: Otis tarda
Layer: 1
Fauna: Anser anser/fabalis, Otis tarda
Layer: 1/2
Fauna: Anser anser/fabalis, Otis tarda, Columba livia, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Layer: 1-4
Fauna: Anser anser/fabalis, Otis tarda
Layer: 2
Fauna: Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Anser anser/fabalis, Anser sp., Anseriform, Anas crecca, Rallus aquaticus, Otis tarda, Columba livia/oenas, Asio flammeus, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Passeriformes (small)
Layer: 2/4
Fauna: Puffinus puffinus, Anser anser/fabalis, Anseriform,Otis tarda
Layer: 3
Fauna: Otis tarda
Layer: 4
Fauna: Anser anser/fabalis, Anser sp., Otis tarda
Layer: 4A/B
Fauna: Athene noctua, Turdus iliacus/philomelos, Turdidae sp.
Layer: 4B
Fauna: cf Circus sp., Columba livia/oenas, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Layer: 4C
Fauna: Columba livia/oenas
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré


FRANCE

FR 4 Abri Dufaure (Landes)

Alt: 127 Type: c
Sources: Altuna et al. 1991, Eastham 1995
Layer: 3 Date: LP-Hol Azilian Dryas 3 - PB 14C=10300-9600 BP
Fauna: Ardea cinerea, Cygnus olor, Anas penelope, Anas crecca, Tetrao urogallus, Strix sp., Alauda arvensis, Turdus merula, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos, Garrulus glandarius, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 4U Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian Dryas 2 - Alleröd 14C=10910±220 BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Anas penelope, Anas platyrhynchos, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco peregrinus, Lagopus lagopus, Tringa totanus, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Turdus merula, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus corax
Layer: 4U-M Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian Dryas 2 - Alleröd 14C=11700-12000 BP
Fauna: Gavia immer, Anser anser, Anser fabalis, Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Tringa totanus, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Alauda arvensis, Turdus iliacus, Fringilla coelebs, Montifringilla nivalis, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 4L-M Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian Dryas 2 - Alleröd
Fauna: Anser anser, Anser fabalis, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Alauda arvensis, Montifringilla nivalis, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 4L Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian Dryas 2 - Alleröd 14C=12260±400 BP
Fauna: Cygnus columbianus, Buteo buteo/lagopus, Burhinus oedicnemus, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Turdus merula, Pica pica
Layer: 5 Date: LP Middle Magdalenian Dryas 1 - Bölling 14C=12690-14570 BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Turdus iliacus, Phylloscopus collybita/trochilus, Montifringilla nivalis, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 6 Date: LP Early Middle Magdalenian, Dryas 1 14C=14020-14640 BP
Fauna: Nyctea scandiaca, Alauda arvensis
Det.: Eastham
Stored: Institut du Quaternaire, Université de Bordeaux I

FR 49 Bois-Ragot (Vienne)

Type: c
Sources: Chollet et al. 1979, Laroulandie 2000 (Gilbert 1984, Griggo 1995)
Layer: BR3 Date: LP LG Late Azilian 14C=8800±220 BP
Fauna: Nyctea scandiaca
Layer: BR4b Date: LP LG Early Azilian 14C=10990±160 BP
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus, Nyctea scandiaca
Layer: BR5b        Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian 14C=11030±140 BP
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus, Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata, Anatidae sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Falco cf tinnunculus, Lagopus sp., Gallus gallus, Grus sp., Crex crex, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Corvus corax, Passeriformes sp.
Layer: BR6 Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian 14C=10180±160 BP
Fauna: Nyctea scandiaca
Det.: Delpech, Gilbert, Griggo & Laroulandie        Stored: Institut du Quaternaire, Université de Bordeaux I
Notes: A. k. a. Gouex

FR 63 La Grotte du Renne à Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne)

Type: c
Sources: David et al. 2006, d'Errico et al. 1998, Lambrecht 1933, Milne-Edwards 1867-71,1875a,b, Mourer-Chauviré 1979b,1983a,2002 Paris 1912, Wolf 1938-41
Layer: 7 Date: LP Aurignacien, 14C=30,800-31,800 BP
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Lagopus lagopus, Ptyonopogne rupestris, Prunella collaris, Corvus corax
Layer: 8 Date: LP Chatelperronian 14C = 33,000-33,860 BP
Fauna: Gyps fulvus, Haliaetus albicilla, Corvus corax
Layer: 9 Date: LP Chatelperronian 14C = 24,500-45,100 BP
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus
Layer: 10b Date: LP Chatelperronian 14C = 24,500-45,100 BP
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus
Det.: Milne-Edwards, Mourer-Chauviré
Stored: Département des Sciences de la Terre de Lyon
Notes: A. k. a. Caverne d'Arcy-sur-Cure

FR 92 Grotta di Brietta (Corse)

Alt: 300 Type: c
Sources: Lambrecht 1933, Louchart 2002, Newton 1922a
Date: LP
Fauna: Oenanthe sp., Turdus sp., Pica pica
Det.: Newton, Louchart Stored: BMNH or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bâle?

FR 93 Grotta di Funtanedu (Corse)

Alt: 400 Type: c
Sources: Lambrecht 1933, Louchart 2002, 2004, Newton 1922a
Date: LP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos/acuta, Aquila sp., Accipiter nisus, Falco tinnunculus, Alectoris rufa??, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana parva, Tringinae sp., cf Larus minutus, Columba palumbus, Asio flammeus, Apus apus, Alauda arvensis, cf Eremophila alpestris, Motacilla sp., Anthus sp., cf Cinclus cinclus, Oenanthe sp., Saxicola sp., Phoenicurus sp., Erithacus rubecula, Meridiocichla salotti sp., Sylviidae sp., Sturnus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Garrulus glandarius, Corvus monedula, Fringillidae sp.
Det.: Newton, Louchart Stored: BMNH or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bâle?

FR 97 Grotte Jean-Pierre N:o 1 (Savoie)

Alt: 750 Type: c
Sources: Mourer-Chauviré 1975a,1979c,1994 Date: LP/Hol Alleröd/Preboreal
Layer: 6 Date: LP LG Dryas 3 14C=10750±300 BP Azilian
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Cuculus canorus, Asio flammeus, Aegolius funereus, Dendrocopos leucotos, Turdus merula, Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, Emberiza citrinella, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Layer: 6a Date: LP LG Dryas 3 14C=10750±300 BP Azilian
Fauna: Accipiter nisus, Lagopus sp., Tetrao tetrix, Crex crex, Actitis hypoleucos, Aegolius funereus, Strix aluco, Dendrocopos leucotos, Alauda arvensis, Hirundo daurica, Cinclus cinclus, Monticola saxatilis, Turdus pilaris, Turdus torquatus, Turdus merula, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, , Emberiza citrinella, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Layer: 6b-c Date: LP LG Alleröd Azilian 14C=10750±300 BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Lagopus sp., Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Lymnocryptes minimus, Scolopax rusticola, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Aegolius funereus, Strix aluco, Apus apus, Dendrocopos major, Dendrocopos leucotos, Alauda arvensis, Hirundo daurica, Cinclus cinclus, Turdus pilaris, Turdus torquatus, Turdus merula, Turdus iliacus, Turdus viscivorus, Turdus philomelos, Sylvia atricapilla, Sylvia communis, Parus montanus, Parus caeruleus, Emberiza citrinella, Plectrophenax nivalis, Fringilla coelebs, Carduelis spinus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Montifringilla nivalis, Garrulus glandarius
Layer: 7 Date: LP LG Dryas 2 Azilian 14C=11900±360 BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Aythya marila, Falco subbuteo, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Crex crex, Pluvialis squatarola, Asio otus, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos, Emberiza citrinella, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 8 Date: LP LG Bölling B
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Anas querquedula, Aythya fuligula, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Gallinago media, Scolopax rusticola, Calidris alba, Rissa tridactyla, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Strix aluco, Dryocopus martius, Turdus viscivorus, Emberiza citrinella, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Fringilla coelebs, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: 9 Date: LP LG Bölling A Magdalenian sup., 14C=13000±300 BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Falco subbuteo, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Pluvialis apricaria, Gallinago media, Scolopax rusticola, Limosa limosa, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Strix aluco, Fringilla coelebs, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 10 Date: LP Dryas I
Fauna: Aythya fuligula, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Gallinago media, Numenius arquata, Asio otus
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré        Stored: Laboratoire de Géologie de l'Université de Grenoble/Muséum d'Histoire naturelle, Grenoble
Notes: A. k. a. Saint Thibaud-de-Couz

FR 120 Grotte de Raymonden (Dordogne)

Alt: 100 Type: c
Date: LP
Sources: Gaudry 1890, Lambrecht 1933
Fauna: Lagopus mutus, Nyctea scandiaca

FR124 Grotte de Tarté (Haute-Garonne)

Alt: 347 Type: c
Sources: Clot & Mourer-Chauviré 1986, Laroulandie 2004, Mourer-Chauviré 1975a
Date: LP Magdalenian (inferieur?), Perigordien (1986)
Fauna: Gypaetus barbatus, Aquila chrysaetos
Stored: Muséum d'Histoire naturelle de Bordeaux
Notes: Collection Harlé
Date: LP Aurignacian
Fauna: Perdix perdix, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré
Date: Unknown
Fauna: Cygnus sp.

FR 131 Grotte de la Vache (Ariège)

Alt: 595 Type: c
Sources: Clot & Mourer-Chauviré 1986, Koby 1957a,b, Laroulandie 2000 (Pailhague 1993,1995,1996,1998)
Layer: I Date: LP LG Magdalenian
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix?, Perdix perdix, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: II Date: LP LG Magdalenian 14C=12540±105,11650±200 BP
Fauna: Ciconia sp., Mergus merganser, Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Gypaetus barbatus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: III Date: LP LG Magdalenian
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Mergus merganser, Buteo buteo, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Streptopelia turtur, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: IV Date: LP LG Magdalenian 14C=12850±60 BP
Fauna: Gypaetus barbatus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Pica pica, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det.: Koby
Layer: Salle Monique
Date: LP LG Late Magdalenian - Early Azilian
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata, Aythya fuligula, Mergus merganser, Aquila chrysaetos, Lagopus sp., Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Columbidae sp., Nyctea scandiaca, Asio otus, Picus viridis, Turdidae sp., Montifringilla nivalis, Garrulus glandarius, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax
Det: Pailhague
Stored: Alliat (Ariège) & Musée de Saint Germain en Laye.

FR 145 Abri Sud de la Grotte de la Coscia (Corse)

Type: c
Alt: 6
Sources: Bonifay et al. 1998, Mourer-Chauviré & Weesie 1986, Louchart 2002, Louchart, Bedetti & Pavia 2005, Mourer Chauviré et al. 1997
Date: LP, Early Würm, ca 60-90 Ka BP
Layer: 4
Fauna: Anser erythropus, Anas crecca/querquedula, Anas spp., Milvus milvus/migrans, Haliaetus/Aquila sp., Gyps melitensis, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Buteo lagopus, Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila sp., Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco naumanni/vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus/columbarius, Falco sp., Falco peregrinus cyrneus, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana porzana, cf Porzana parva, Porzana parva/pusilla, Rallus aquaticus/Porzana porzana, Crex crex, Crex crex/Rallus aquaticus, Tetrax tetrax, Gallinago gallinago, Scolopax rusticola, cf Tringa sp., Fratercula arctica, Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Otus scpos, Bubo insularis, Asio flammeus/otus, Caprimulgus europaeus, Apus melba, Merops apiaster, Coracias garrulus, Dendrocopos major, Alaudidae sp. cf Hirundo sp., Anthus sp., Motacilla cf cinerea/alba, Luscinia luscinia/megarhynchos, Phoenicurus ochruros/phoenicurus, Saxicola rubetra/torquata, Turdus cf iliacus, Turdus cf viscivorus, Turdus spp., Meridiocichla salotti, Sylvia cf atricapilla, Muscicapa striata, Lanius minor, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Sturnus sp., Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Emberiza cf citrinella
Date: LP, Early Würm, ca 60-90 Ka BP
Layer: 5
Fauna: Anas sp., Gyps melitensis, Porzana parva, Asio flammeus/otus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Sturnus sp., Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Emberiza cf citrinella
Date: LP, Early Würm, ca 60-90 Ka BP
Layer: 6
Fauna: Anas spp., Aquila sp., Falco tinnunculus/columbarius, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Gallinago media, Tringa cf erythropus, Otus scops, Asio flammeus, cf Hirundo sp., Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Date: LP, Early Würm, ca 60-90 Ka BP
Layer: 7
Fauna: Calonectris diomedea, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco naumanni, Falco subbuteo, Falco sp., Falco peregrinus cyrneus, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Tetrax tetrax, Coracias garrulus, Dendrocopos major, Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Date; Probably LP, Early Würm, ca 50-60 Ka BP
Layer: Unstratified
Fauna: Anas sp., Aquila sp., Aquila nipaloides, cf Falco subbuteo, Falco naumanni/vespertinus, Falco peregrinus cyrneus,Bubo insularis, Coiracias garrulus, Turdus cf iliacus, Turdus sp., Oriolus oriolus, Lanius collurio, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Corvus corax
Det.: Louchart, Mourer-Chauviré, Weesie Stored: Département des Sciences de la Terre, Lyon
Notes: A. k. a. Grotte de Macinaggio.

FR 192 L'Esquicho-Grapaou (Gard)

Type: c
Sources: Bazile 1985, (Bazile et al 19XX)
Date: LP Aurignacian 0 14C=31850±1700, 31950±1300 BP
Layer: SLC 1A
Fauna: Haliaetus albicilla, Falco columbarius, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax sp.

FR213 Pair-non-Pair (Gironde)
Type: c
Sources: Laroulandie 2004, Mourer-Chauviré 1975a
Date: LP Aurignacian-Solutreen?
Fauna: Anser anser, Branta leucopsis, Anas strepera, Mergus merganser, Aquila chrysaetos, cf Gypaetus barbatus, Buteo rufinus, Accipiter gentilis, Falco rusticolus, Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius morinellus, Larus hyperboreus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré, Laroulandie Stored: Muséum de Bordeaux

FR 243 Toga (Corse)

Type: c
Sources: Lambrecht 1933, Locard 1872, Louchart 2002, Lydekker 1891b, Newton 1922a
Date: LP or Holocene
Fauna: Aquila sp., Columba livia/oenas, Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det.: Lydekker, Newton, Louchart Stored: BMNH or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bâle?

FR 255 Combe Saunière 1 (Dordogne)

Type.: c
Sources: Geneste & Plisson 1993, Laroulandie 2000
Layer: IV         Date: LP Late Solutrean 14C=14,890±200-19,630±320 BP
Fauna: Anser sp., Aythya sp., Mergus merganser, Anatidae sp., Falco peregrinus, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus sp., Perdix perdix, Nyctea scandiaca, Athene noctua, Strigiformes spp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax, Passeriformes sp.
Det: Laroulandie


GEORGIA

GE 6 Gvardzhilas-Klde (Imeretia)

Type: c
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1966b,1969,1974,1975, Burchak-Abramovich & Bendukidze 1971a, Potapova 2000
Date: LP UP "Magdalenian"
Fauna: Haliaeetus albicilla, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Gallus gallus, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Turdus merula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Erythrinus rubicilla
Det.: Burchak-Abramovich, Potapova

GE 9 Kudaro 1 (South Ossetia)

Alt: 1600 Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov & Cherepanov 1985, Burchak-Abramovich 1974,1975,1980a, Burchak-Abramovich & Bendukidze 1971a, Burchak-Abramovich & Burchak 1982, Burchak-Abramovich & Lyubin 1972, Gerasimov 1978, Potapova 2000.
Layer: 1-2 Date: LP Mesolithic
Fauna: Buteo buteo, Phasianus colchicus, Dryocopus martius, Ptyonoprogne rupestris
Layer: 3 unstrat. Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Gypaetus barbatus, Aegypius monachus, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 3a Date: LP Mousterian 14C=44150±2400 BP
Fauna: Anas crecca, Falco tinnunculus, Falco columbarius, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Dryocopus martius, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 3b Date: LP Mousterian 14C=441500±2400 BP
Fauna: Anas clypeata, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Tetraogallus caucasicus, Coturnix coturnix, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 3c Date: LP Mousterian 14C=44150±2400 BP
Fauna: Anser anser, Falco tinnunculus, Tetraogallus caucasicus, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Alectoris chukar, Perdix perdix, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Possibly Alectoris graeca instead of Alectoris chukar.
Layer: 3/4 Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Pandion haliaetus, Falco tinnunculus, Tetraogallus cf caucasicus, Bubo cf bubo, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 4 Date: LP Mousterian "Brörup/Amersfoort", IS 5a-d
Fauna: Anas crecca, Aythya nyroca, Accipiter nisus, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Alectoris chukar, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Possibly Alectoris graeca instead of Alectoris chukar.
Layer: 5a Date: MP Acheulean IS 8
Fauna: Aythya ferina, Buteo buteo, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Tetraogallus cf caucasicus, Alectoris chukar, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Phasianus sp., Apus melba, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Possibly Alectoris graeca instead of Alectoris chukar.
Layer: 5b Date: MP Acheulean IS 9-10
Fauna: Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Anthus sp., Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Notes: Pyrrhocorax graculus instead of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax according to Burchak-Abramovich 1975
Layer: 5c Date: MP Acheulean 360±90 KA BP, IS 11-12
Fauna: Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 5 undif. Date: MP Acheulean
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Phasianus sp., Columba livia, Strix aluco, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det: Burchak-Abramovich
Notes: The Gallus sp. previously reported from this site is actually a Phasianus (Potapova 2000).

GE 13 Mgwimewi (Imeretia)

Type: c
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1972, Burchak-Abramovich & Bendukidze 1971a, Ganja & Burchak-Abramovich 1992, Potapova 2000
Date: LP UP Late Würm
Fauna: Phasianus sp.
Det.: Burchak-Abramovich, Potapova

GE 14 Okumi I (Abkhazia)

Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov & Cherepanov 1985, Burchak-Abramovich 1981, Potapova 1991 (Burchak-Abramovich 1980b)
Date: LP Mousterian-Eneolithic
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao mlokosiewiczii, Phasianus colchicus, Turdus pilaris, Pyrrhocorx graculus, Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Burchak-Abramovich


GREECE

GR 10 Liko cave (Crete)

Alt: 1 Type: c
Sources: Louchart 2004, Louchart, Bedetti & Pavia 2005, Weesie 1982a,1987a,b
Layer: a Date: LP?
Fauna: Gyps fulvus, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Glareola sp., Scolopax rusticola, Columba oenas, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Tyto alba, Otus scops, Athene cretensis, Aegolius funereus, Apus apus, Apus melba, Prunella collaris, Erithacus rubecula, Oenanthe hispanica, Meridiocichla salotti, Turdus iliacus, Turdus sp., Muscicapa striata, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Fringilla coelebs/montefringilla, Carduelis chloris, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Emberiza sp.
Layer: a/b Date: LP?
Fauna: Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculus, Falco eleonorae, Scolopax rusticola, Columba oenas, Columba oenas/livia, Columba palumbus, Athene cretensis, Erithacus rubecula, Turdus iliacus, Turdus sp., Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Fringilla coelebs/montefringilla, Miliaria calandra, Emberiza spp.
Layer: b Date: LP?
Fauna: Columba oenas, Tyto alba, Athene cretensis, Prunella collaris
Layer: c Date: LP?
Fauna: Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps melitensis, Buteo buteo, Falco eleonorae, Porzana porzana, Scolopax rusticola, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Tyto alba, Otus scops, Athene cretensis, Aegolius funereus, Apus melba, Hirundo daurica, Erithacus rubecula, Monticola solitarius, Meridiocichla salotti, Turdus spp., Turdus pilaris/viscivorus, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Sturnus sp., Fringilla coelebs/montefringilla, Carduelis chloris, Emberiza sp.
Layer: c/d Date: LP?
Fauna: Scolopax rusticola, Columba livia, Columba livia/oenas, Tyto alba, Athene cretensis, Turdus spp., Corvus monedula, Emberiza sp.
Layer: d Date: LP?
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, “Aquila chrysaetos simurgh”, Falco tinnunculus, Falco eleonorae, Porzana porzana, Scolopax rusticola, Columba livia, Columba livia/oenas, Columba oenas, Tyto alba, Athene cretensis, Asio flammeus, Aegolius funereus, Apus apus, Calandrella brachydactyla, Erithacus rubecula, Meridiocichla salotti, Turdus spp., Turdus viscivorus/pilaris, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Sturnus sp., Emberiza sp.
Layer: e Date: LP?
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Columba livia/oenas, Athene cretensis, Aegolius funereus, Turdus sp., Miliaria calandra
Layer: A Date: LP?
Fauna: Accipiter nisus, Coturnix coturnix, Scolopax rusticola, Columba palumbus, Athene cretensis, Corvus monedula
Layer: B Date: LP AAR = 105,000±21,000 BP
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Anas penelope, Gypaetus barbatus, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, “Aquila chrysaetos simurgh”, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae, Gallinula chloropus, Scolopax rusticola, Columba oenas, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Tyto alba, Otus scops, Athene noctua, Aegolius funereus, Caprimulgus europaeus, Apus melba, Dendrocopos leucotos, Hirundo daurica, Prunella collaris, Oenanthe hispanica, Meridiocichla salotti, Turdus iliacus, Turdus sp., Turdus pilaris/viscivorus, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Sturnus sp., Fringilla coelebs/montefringilla
Layer: C Date: LP AAR = 105,000±21,000 BP
Fauna: Corvus monedula
Layer: D Date: LP AAR = 87,000±17,000 BP
Fauna: Branta ruficollis, Aegypius monachus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Columba oenas/livia, Tyto alba, Ketupa zeylonensis, Athene cretensis, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Layer: V Date: LP?
Fauna: Haliaeetus albicilla, Aegypius monachus, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, “Aquila” simurgh, Falco tinnunculus, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Calidris canutus, Scolopax rusticola, Columba livia, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Athene cretensis, Apus apus, Erithacus rubecula, Monticola solitarius, Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Sturnus sp., Fringilla coelebs/montefringilla, Carduelis chloris, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Layer: Unstrat. Date: LP?
Fauna: Branta ruficollis, Gyps fulvus, Gyps melitensis, Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculus, Scolopax rusticola, Columba oenas, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Tyto alba, Athene cretensis, Prunella collaris, Turdus sp., Garrulus glandarius, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Det.: Weesie Stored: Institute for Earth Sciences, Utrecht
Note: A. k. a. Likotinarus, Likotinara cave, Kopranou cave.


HUNGARY

HU 5 Beremend 16-17 (Villány)

Type: c
Sources: Jánossy 1991,1992,1996, Mlíkovský 2002
Date: EP ca 1 MA BP
Fauna: Ciconia stehlini, Anas crecca percrecca, Anas cf acuta, cf Anas clypeata, Anas cf strepera, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Tetrao partium, Palaeocryptonyx donnezani, Francolinus minor, Francolinus capeki, Francolinus subfrancolinus, Coturnix cf coturnix, Perdix sp., Otis kalmani, Otis cf lambrechti, Crex sp., Porzana cf porzana, Porzana cf parva, Gallinula cf chloropus, Tringa sp., Limosa cf limosa, Vanellus cf vanellus, Larus cf ridibundus?, Cursorius sp.?, Columba cf livia, Strix intermedia, Asio sp., Athene veta, Alauda cf arvensis, Galerida sp., Melanocorypha sp., Hirundo sp., Bombycilla cf garrulus, Turdus aff iliacus, Turdus cf philomelos, Erithacus sp., Emberiza sp., Carduelis sp., Pyrrhula sp., Serinus sp., Sturnus cf vulgaris, Pyrrhocorax graculus vetus, Garrulus cf glandarius, Corvus janossyi
Det.: Jánossy, Mlíkovský

HU 12 Hungária-hegy (Gerecse)

Type: c
Sources: Jánossy 1953,1986, Jánossy & Vörös 1987
Date: MP Late MP, Riss s. l.
Fauna: Pica pica
Det: Jánossy
Notes: A. k. a. Dorog, Köszikla, Nagy-Köszikla and Kis-Köszikla

HU 46 Somssichhégy 2 (Villány)

Type: c
Sources: Jánossy 1981a,1982b,1983,1986
Date: EP Lower Biharian Templomhegy substage MNQ 20
Fauna: Anser subanser, Aythya sp., Anatidae, Aquila cf heliaca, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Falco cf vespertinus, Tetrao partium, Francolinus capeki, Coturnix cf coturnix, Otis sp., Surnia robusta, Athene noctua cf lunellensis, Picus cf viridis, Dendrocopos submajor, Galerida cf cristata, Hirundo cf rustica, Sitta cf europaea, Passeriformes
Det.: Jánossy
Notes: A. k. a. Somssich hill 2

HU 64 Vaskapu (Bükk)

Alt: 495
Type: c
Sources: Mottl 1941, Válóczi 1999 (Kadic & Mottl 1938)
Layer: Hellbraune-grünlichgraue-rötliche schichte
Date: LP "Magdalenien II", “Late Würm III, Pilisszanto horizon”
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Pyrrhocorax graculus


ISRAEL


IS 11 Hayonim cave (Galilee)

Alt: 230
Type: c
Sources: Bar-Yosef & Tchernov 1966, Munro 1999,2001,2003, Pichon 1984,1989, Stiner 2005, Stiner et al. 1999, Stiner & Munro 2002, Tchernov 1979, 1984
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Natufian, c. 10700-12400 BP
Fauna: Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Aquila pomarina, Milvus migrans, Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Accipiter nisus, Accipiter cf gentilis, Gyps fulvus, Alectoris chukar, Coturnix coturnix, Phasianus colchicus, Crex crex, Gallinula chloropus, Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia sp., Athene noctua, Otus scops, Tyto alba, Asio sp., Apus affinis gallelejensis Coracias sp.,Upupa epops, Alcedo atthis, Alauda arvensis, Melanocorypha calandra, Galerida cristata, Motacilla cinerea, Hirundo daurica, Hirundo sp., Hirundo rustica, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, Sturnus vulgaris, Sturnus sp., Regulus sp., Turdus merula, Turdus philomelos, Monticola sp., Oenanthe spp., Phoenicurus sp., Saxicola torquata, Erithacus rubecula, Luscinia megarhynchos, Luscinia svecica, Luscinia sp., Sylvia sp., Sylvia hortensis, Sylvia melanocephala, Phylloscopus sp., Nectarinia osea, Lanius senator, Passer domesticus, Petronia petronia, Carduelis carduelis, Carduelis spinus, Carduelis cannabina, Carduelis chloris, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Loxia curvirostra, Serinus serinus, Miliaria calandra, Emberiza caesia
Det.: Tchernov
Notes: Carduelis cannabina not mentioned by Tchernov 1979
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Natufian, c. 11000-13000 BP
Fauna: Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Tadorna tadorna, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Pandion haliaetus, Neophron percnopterus, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Accipiter nisus, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Buteo sp., Aquila pomarina, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Perdix perdix, Alectoris chukar, Coturnix coturnix, Phasianus cf colchicus, Grus grus, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Porzana porzana, Fulica atra, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Chlamydotis undulata, Vanellus vanellus, Pterocles alchata, Pterocles sp., Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia senegalensis, Streptopelia sp., Tyto alba, Asio otus, Otus scops, Athene noctua, Strix aluco, Apus affinis, Alcedo atthis, Merops apiaster, Coracias garrulus, Upupa epops, Melanocorypha calandra, Melanocorypha cf calandra, Alauda arvensis, Hirundo rustica, Hirundo daurica, Motacilla cinerea, Motacilla alba, Lanius senator, Lanius nubicus, Troglodytes troglodytes, Nectarinia osea, Saxicola torquata, Oenanthe oenanthe, Oenanthe hispanica, Monticola solitarius, Phoenicurus ochruros, Erithacus rubecula, Luscinia svecica, Luscinia megarhynchos, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos, Turdus merula, Turdus sp., Prinia gracilis, Sylvia hortensis, Sylvia borin, Sylvia atricapilla, Sylvia melanocephala, Phylloscopus collybita, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Phylloscopus sp., Regulus regulus, Muscicapa striata, Remiz pendulinus, Parus major, Sturnus vulgaris, Sturnus sp., Oriolus oriolus, Garrulus glandarius, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Miliaria calandra, Emberiza caesia, Fringilla coelebs, Serinus pusillus, Carduelis carduelis, Carduelis chloris, Carduelis spinus, Loxia curvirostra, Passer domesticus, Passer hispaniolensis, Passer sp., Petronia petronia
Det.: Pichon
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Natufian, 11,000-13,000 BP
Fauna: Anser anser, Aquila chrysaetos, Buteo buteo, Alectoris chukar, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Columba livia, Strigidae sp., Passeriformes sp.
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Alleröd, Early Natufian
Fauna: Anser sp., Anas sp., Alectoris chukar, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Fulica atra, Otis tarda, Vanellus vanellus, Crex crex, Grus grus, Columba livia
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Younger Dryas, Late Natufian
Fauna: Anser sp., Anas sp., Alectoris chukar, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Fulica atra, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Crex crex, Columba livia, Columba palumbus
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Natufian, ca 12,500-10,700 BP
Fauna: Anser sp., Anas sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Neophron percnopterus, Alectoris chukar, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Fulica atra, Otis tarda, Tetrax tetrax, Vanellus vanellus, Crex crex, Grus grus, Gallinula chloropus, Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Tyto alba, Otus scops, Alauda arvensis, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Pica pica, Garrulus sp.
Det.: Munro
Note: 1992 excavation.
Layer: C
Date: LP Kebaran, ca 14,000-17,000 KA BP
Fauna: Struthio sp., Columba livia, Passer domesticus
Det.: Tchernov
Layer: D
Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=26,000-28,000 KA BP
Fauna: Struthio sp., Passer domesticus
Det.: Tchernov
Layer: E (upper)
Date: LP Mousterian ca 70-100 KA BP, IS 4-5
Fauna: Passer domesticus
Det.: Tchernov
Layer: E (lower)
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Passer domesticus
Layer: E2
Date: MP ca 150 KA BP
Fauna: Struthio sp.
Layer: E3
Date: MP ca 170 KA BP
Fauna: Struthio sp.
Layer: E4
Date: MP ca 200 KA BP
Fauna: Struthio sp.
Det.: Tchernov
Layer: E undifferentiated
Date: MP ca 70-200 KA BP
Fauna: Struthio camelus, Alectoris chukar
Det: Stiner?

IS 23 Netiv Hagdud (West Bank)

Alt: -200 Type: o
Sources: Tchernov 1993a,1994
Layer: Lower Complex
Date: LP/Hol PPNA 14C=9600-9780 BP
Fauna: Ciconia ciconia, Anser albifrons, Tadorna tadorna, Anas querquedula, Anas platyrhynchos, Pernus apivorus, Milvus migrans, Aquila pomarina, Aquila spp., Alectoris chukar, Francolinus francolinus, Ammoperdix heyi, Coturnix coturnix, Otis tarda, Streptopelia decaocto, Sturnus vulgaris, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Serinus serinus
Layer: Middle Complex
Date: LP/Hol PPNA 14C=9400-9970 BP
Fauna: Leptoptilos crumeniferus, Ciconia ciconia, Anser albifrons, Tadorna tadorna, Anas querquedula, Anas platyrhynchos, Pernus apivorus, Milvus migrans, Circus sp., Accipiter sp., Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Aquila pomarina, Aquila spp., Falco spp., Alectoris chukar, Francolinus francolinus, Ammoperdix heyi, Coturnix coturnix, Otis tarda, Fulica atra, Burhinus oedicnemus, Vanellus spinosus, Columba livia, Streptopelia decaocto, Athene noctua, Melanocorypha calandra, Galerida cristata, Pycnonotus xanthopygos, Lanius excubitor, Turdus merula, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, Corvus ruficollis, Corvus rhipidurus, Corvus corone, cf Fringilla sp., Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Passer domesticus
Layer: Upper Complex
Date: LP/Hol PPNA 14C=9700 BP
Fauna: Ciconia ciconia, Tadorna tadorna, Anas querquedula, Anas platyrhynchos, Milvus migrans, Circus sp., Aquila pomarina, Aquila spp., Francolinus francolinus, Coturnix coturnix, Galerida cristata, Onychognatus tristrami, Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus corone
Layer: Upper Area
Date: LP/Hol PPNA 14C=9600-10180 BP
Fauna: Anser albifrons, Tadorna tadorna, Anas querquedula, Milvus migrans, Buteo buteo, Aquila spp., Falco spp., Francolinus francolinus, Coturnix coturnix, Otis tarda, Corvus corone
Det.: Tchernov


ITALY


IT 12 + 122 Monte Reale (Sardegna)

Type: o
Sources: Fischer & Mauersberger 1989, Lydekker 1891b, Milne-Edwards 1867-71, Mlíkovský 1995b, 2000b (Wagner 1832,1833, Studiati 1857)
Date: MP?
Fauna: Tadorna sp.
Det: Wagner, Mlíkovský
Fauna: Anas sp., Passer sp.
Stored: Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Fauna: Tyto balearica
Det: Mlíkovský
Stored: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris
Notes: Also known as Cagliari and Monreale. Wagner also reported Anas sp., Aquila sp., Buteo sp., Sterna sp., Strix sp., Picus sp., Alauda sp., Turdus sp., Corvus sp. and Fringilla sp. from this site. Furthermore Milne-Edwards (1867-71) reported Upupa epops from ”brèches de Sardaigne”, possibly from this site. A owl similar to Nyctea scandiaca probably from this site (Milne-Edwards 1867-71) is presumably Bubo insularis.

IT 14 Cala della Calcina (Sardegna)

Sources: Kotsakis 1980, Louchart 2002, Louchart, Bedetti & Pavia 2005, Malatesta & Suriano 1970
Date: LP Post-Tyrrhenian
Fauna: Gavia sp., Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Ardea sp., Anser sp., Branta sp., Anatinae sp., Gypaetus barbatus, Aegypius monachus, Aquila npaloides, Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila sp., Milvus milvus, Buteo buteo, , Circus cf cyaneus, Falco peregrinus/biarmicus, Falco tinnunculus, Limosa sp., Larus sp., Columba livia, Tyto alba cf ernestii, Bubo insularis, Turdus sp., Sturnus sp., Corvus corax, Corvus corone/ frugilegus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Cardini, Cassoli, Suriano, Pavia
Stored: Museo di Paleontologia Universitá ”La Sapienza” Roma (MPUR)
Notes: A. k. a. Grotte de Dragonara

IT 21 Cava Panzini a Pontecorvo (Lazio)

Type: o
Sources: Bedetti 2003, Bidittu & Segre 1982, Cassoli 1978 (Bidittu & Cassoli 1969, Bidittu & Segre 1976-77)
Date: MP IS 9
Fauna: Anser sp.
Det.: Bedetti, Cassoli
Notes: A. k. a. Vetrine, Pontecorvo

IT 22 Cava Sud à Soave (Verona)

Type: c
Sources: Bedetti, 2003, Bedetti & Pavia 2004b, Mourer-Chauviré 1980b
Date: EP middle/late Villafranchien MNQ 19
Fauna: Branta sp., Circaetus gallicus, Aquila sp., Perdix n. sp., Palaeocryptonyx donnezani, Galliformes indet, Charadriiformes indet., Bubo bubo, Strix nebulosa, Strigidae sp., Alauda arvensis/Galerida cristata, Alaudidae indet., Corvus pliocaenus, Carduelis chloris, Fringillidae indet., Emberiza sp.
Det.: Bedetti, Mourer-Chauviré, Pavia
Stored: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Verona

IT 28 Colle Avarone (Frosinone)

Type: o
Sources: Bedetti 2003, Bidittu & Segre 1982, Cassoli 1978,1980
Date: MP IS 9?
Fauna: Anser sp., Stercorarius longicaudus
Det.: Bedetti, Cassoli
Notes: A. k. a. Ceprano a Avarone and Ceprano
Stored: Istituto di Paleontologia Umana

IT 33 Frascati (Lazio)

Type: o
Sources: Friant 1952, Lambrecht 1933, Palombo et al 2002 (Meli 1889,1892)
Date: LP, 20-70 Ka BP
Fauna: Gyps fulvus
Notes: Near km XIX via Anagnina.

IT 36 Grotta Luparello (Palermo)

Type: c
Alt: 130
Sources: Pavia 2000,2004, Vaufrey 1929, Wolf 1938-41
Date: MP? "Terre rouge á Elephants"
Fauna: Cygnus sp., Anser sp., Branta sp., Tadorna tadorna, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas sp., Aythya sp., Buteo buteo, Accipiter gentilis, Aquila sp., Gallus gallus, Alectoris graeca, Coturnix coturnix, Scolopax rusticola, Cuculus canorus,Columba livia/oenas, Columba oenas, Columba palumbus, Tyto mourerchauvireae, Bubo bubo, Athene trinacriae, Monticola saxatilis/solitarius, Turdus sp., Acrocephalus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Corvidae n. sp., Sturnus unicolor/vulgaris, Carduelis sp., Passeriformes sp.
Det: Pavia
Stored: Museo Geologico "G. G. Gemmillaro" di Palermo

IT 39 Grotta Rapaci (Sardegna)

Type: c
Sources: Louchart 2002, Louchart, Bedetti & Pavia 2005, Mourer-Chauviré & Weesie 1986
Date: LP
Fauna: Ciconia ciconia, Anser anser/fabalis, Anas sp., Gypaetus barbatus, Gyps melitensis, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Aquila nipaloides, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Rallidae sp., Columba livia/oenas, Bubo insularis, Athene noctua, Asio flammeus, Apus apus,Dryocopus martius, Prunella collaris, Oenanthe sp., Turdus spp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvuis monedula, Corvus corax, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Louchart, Mourer-Chauviré, Weesie

IT 40 Grotta Romanelli (Puglia)

Alt: 18 Type: c
Sources: Bartolomei et al. 1979, Blanc 1920, 1928, Cassoli 1972, Cassoli, Gala & Tagliacozzi 2003, Cassoli, Segre & Segre 1979, Cassoli & Tagliacozzi 1994,1997a, Del Campana 1928, Gál 1999, Gala & Tagliacozzi 2000, Regalia 1904, Stehlin & Graziosi 1935, Tagliacozzi & Gala 2000, 2001, Vaufrey 1928, Wolf 1938-41 (Rovereto 1919)
Layer: A1
Date: LP LG Late Dryas 3 14C (A1+2) 10,320±130 , 9,880±100, 11,800±600, 9,050±100 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps cristatus, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Tadorna tadorna, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Aythya ferina, Aythya fuligula, Melanitta fusca, Mergus albellus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps fulvus, Aquila heliaca, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Alectoris graeca, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Pluvialis apricaria, Numenius phaeopus, Larus argentatus, Pterocles alchata, Streptopelia turtur, Tyto alba, Otus scops, Athene noctua, Asio flammeus, Apus apus, Galerida cristata, Turdus iliacus, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
Layer: A2
Date: LP LG Late Dryas 3
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta fusca, Circus aeruginosus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Vanellus vanellus, Numenius phaeopus, Pinguinus impennis, Pterocles alchata, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Athene noctua, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Turdus pilaris, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Sturnus vulgaris
Layer: B
Date: LP LG Late Middle Dryas 3 14C = 11,930±520 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Tadorna tadorna, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Oxyura leucocephala, Gyps fulvus, Circus macrourus, Accipiter gentilis, Aquila heliaca, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco peregrinus, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Grus cf. leucogeranus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Pluvialis apricaria, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Scolopax rusticola, Numenius phaeopus, Pinguinus impennis, Pterocles orientalis, Pterocles alchata, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Athene noctua, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Turdus viscivorus, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Sturnus vulgaris
Layer: C sup.
Date: LP LG Middle Dryas 3 14C (C sup + inf) = 10,390±80, 9,790±80 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Pelecanus crispus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea cinerea, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta fusca, Bucephala clangula, Mergellus albellus, Mergus serrator, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Circus aeruginosus, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo lagopus, Aquila heliaca, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Alectoris graeca, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Grus cf. leucogeranus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Pluvialis apricaria, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Limosa limosa, Numenius phaeopus, Larus marinus, Pinguinus impennis, Pterocles alchata, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Tyto alba, Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Athene noctua, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Hirundo rustica, Zoothera dauma, Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus viscivorus, Pica pica, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Sturnus vulgaris, Loxia curvirostra, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
Layer: C inf.
Date: LP LG Middle Dryas 3
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Puffinus puffinus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Nycticorax nycticorax, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Tadorna tadorna, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Melanitta fusca, Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Circus aeruginosus, Accipiter gentilis, Aquila heliaca, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Alectoris graeca, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Grus cf. leucogeranus, Anthropoides virgo, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Numenius phaeopus, Larus marinus, Rissa tridactyla, Pinguinus impennis, Pterocles alchata, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Tyto alba, Athene noctua, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Turdus pilaris, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Sturnus vulgaris
Layer: D
Date: LP LG Early Dryas 3 14C = 10.640±100 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta fusca, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Circus cyaneus,Circus macrourus, Aquila heliaca, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Grus cf. leucogeranus, Anthropoides virgo, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadrius morinellus, Pluvialis apricaria, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Numenius phaeopus, Numenius arquata, Larus marinus, Pinguinus impennis, Pterocles alchata, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Turdus viscivorus, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Sturnus vulgaris
Layer: E
Date: LP LG Late Alleröd
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Podiceps cristatus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Anser caerulescens, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Aythya ferina, Melanitta fusca, Gyps fulvus, Circus cyaneus, Accipiter gentilis, Aquila heliaca, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Alectoris graeca, Alectoris rufa, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Grus cf. leucogeranus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Numenius phaeopus, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Athene noctua, Asio flammeus, Turdus pilaris, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Corvus corax
Layer: A-E
Date: LP Alleröd - Dryas 3
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Phalacrocorax carbo, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anser anser, Branta leucopsis, Branta bernicla, Branta ruficollis, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas acuta, Aythya ferina, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco peregrinus, Alectoris graeca, Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, Grus cf. leucogeranus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Numenius phaeopus, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Asio flammeus, Apus apus, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Sturnus vulgaris
Det: Cassoli, Tagliacozzi, Gala
Layer: ?
Date: LP
Fauna: Anser anser, Anser cf erythropus, Anser cf albifrons, Anser cf fabalis, Branta bernicla, Branta cf leucopsis, Branta cf ruficollis, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas cf strepera, Anas penelope, Mergus serrator, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Pluvialis apricaria, Columba oenas, Turdus pilaris
Det: Gál
Stored: Hungarian Geological Institute
Layer: G "Terra Rossa"         Date: LP Archaic Mousterian, Middle Würm, ca 40-70 Ka BP?
Fauna: Otis tarda, Tetrax tetrax, Columba livia
Det: Blanc
Layer: H (lower Stalagmite) Date: LP Archaic Mousterian, Early Würm ca 70 Ka BP?
Fauna: Anser albifrons
Det: Blanc
Layer: I
Date: LP Archaic Mousterian, Early Würm?
Fauna: Aquila sp., Columba livia, Turdus sp., Corvus corax, Corvus monedula        
Det: Blanc
Layer: G-I "Terra Rossa" Date: LP Archaic Mousterian, Early Würm?
Fauna: Anser albifrons, Scolopax rusticola, Nyctea scandiaca, Strix uralensis
Det: Cassoli

IT 53 Grotta del Fossellone (Lazio)

Type: c
Sources: Alhaique, Biondi et al 1998, Alhaique & Tagliacozzi 2000, Cassoli 1980, Cuisin & Vigne 1998
Layer: 21.
Date: LP Aurignacian
Fauna: Anser albifrons, Aquila chrysaetos, Gyps fulvus, Alectoris rufa, Alectoris graeca, Alectoris barbara, Alectoris sp., Perdix perdix, Otis tarda, Columba palumbus, Columba sp., Columba livia, Nyctea scandiaca, Strix aluco/Tyto alba, Lullula arborea, Corvus corone, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Turdus merula, Turdus sp.
Layer: 23-27.
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Branta bernicla, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Fringilla coelebs
Det: Recchi Date: LP Mousterian/Aurignacian
Fauna: Botaurus stellaris, Falco vespertinus, Columba oenas, Bubo bubo, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus monedula
Det: Cassoli

IT 59 Grotta della Madonna (Calabria)

Type: c
Sources: Cassoli 1972, Cassoli 1980, Cassoli & Tagliacozzi 1994, Tagliacozzo & Gala 2001,2002
Layer: L Date: LP LG Upper Paleolithic 14C=8735±80-12100±150 BP
Fauna: Gavia arctica, Gavia stellata, Podiceps cristatus, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus cygnus, Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Tadorna tadorna, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Somateria mollissima, Bucephala clangula, Mergus merganser, Mergus serrator, Buteo buteo, Fulica atra, Larus argentatus, Scolopax rusticola, Pterocles orientalis, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: ? Date: LP?
Fauna: Calonectris diomedea, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus cygnus, Anser albifrons, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas penelope, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Bucephala clangula, Mergus merganser, Mergus serrator, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Aquila chrysaetos, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus aeruginosus, Falco subbuteo, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus mutus, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Fulica atra, Otis tarda, Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Cuculus canorus, Otus scops, Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Strix aluco, Asio flammeus, Apus apus, Coracias garrulus, Melanocorypha calandra, Ptyonorogne rupestris, Turdus viscivorus, Turdus pilaris, Fringilla coelebs, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Garrulus glandarius
Det.: Cassoli
Notes: A. k. a. Praia a Mare

IT 62 Grotta di Cardamone (Puglia)

Type: c
Sources: Botti 1891, Cardini 1961, Cassoli 1980, Lambrecht 1933, Rustioni et al. 1999, Vaufrey 1927,1928, Wolf 1938-41
Date: LP
Fauna: Anser albifrons, Branta bernicla, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Mergus merganser, Buteo buteo, Buteo lagopus, Aquila chrysaetos, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus aeruginosus, Falco rusticolus, Falco subbuteo, Falco tinnunculus, Otis tarda, Calidris canutus, Charadrius morinellus, Nyctea scandiaca, Asio otus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone
Date: LP
Fauna: Grus grus, Otis tarda, Columba oenas, Strix sp., Corvus corax
Det.: Blanc?, Botti Stored: Istituto Tecnico di Lecce
Date: LP
Fauna: Branta bernicla, Haliaeetus albicilla, Buteo buteo, Otis tarda, Tetrax tetrax, Columba livia/oenas, Cuculus canorus minor, Bubo bubo
Det: Pavia

IT 63 Grotta di Corbeddu (Sardegna)

Alt: 200 Type: c
Sources: Hoofmeijer 1997, Louchart 2002, Louchart, Bedetti & Pavia 2005, Mourer-Chauviré & Weesie 1986, Weesie 1999
Date: LP/Hol 8-15 KA BP
Layer: Salle I
Fauna: Gyps sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Columba palumbus, Bubo insularis
Layer: Salle II
Fauna: Anser sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila nipaloides, Bubo insularis, Athene noctua
Layer: Salle III
Fauna: Accipiter gentilis, Aquila chrysaetos, Columba livia/oenas
Layer: Salle IV (Couche 1)
Fauna: Columba palumbus, Bubo insularis
Layer: Salle IV (Couche 2)
Fauna: Anser sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila nipaloides, Scolopax rusticola, Otus scops, Bubo insularis
Layer: Salle IV (Couche 3)
Fauna: Anser sp.
Layer: Unknown
Fauna: Aquila sp., Turdus sp., Passeriformes small spp.
Det.: Louchart, Mourer-Chauviré, Weesie

IT 74 Ingarano (Foggia)

Alt: 270 Type: c
Sources: Barbato et al. 1992, Bedetti & Pavia 2007, Pavia 2000, Petronio et al 1996, 2006
Date: LP IS 3, ca 50 KA BP
Layer; c, d, e
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Buteo rufinus, Circus aeruginosus, Falco cherrug, Falco columbarius, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Nyctea scandiaca, Nyctea scandiaca/Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Det.: Bedetti, Cassoli, Parry, Pavia
Stored: Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dell'Università "La Sapienza" di Roma

IT 75 Loreto a Venosa (Basilicata)

Type: o
Sources:Bedetti 2003, Cassoli 1978,1980
Date: MP Acheulean c. 200-750 KA BP
Upper Levels
Fauna: Otis tarda
Lower Levels
Fauna: Botaurus stellaris, Anser anser, Branta leucopsis,, Mergus serrator, Anatidae sp., Coturnix coturnix, Fulica atra, Strigidae sp., Sturnus vulgaris, Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Bedetti, Cassoli
Notes: layer 2-4: 198-215 KA BP, layer 8-9: 293-311 KA BP, layer 37: Brunhes/Matuyama border (c. 730 KA BP)
Stored: Istituto di Paleontologia Umana

IT 78 Monte Argentario (Toscana)

Type: c
Sources: Bedetti 2003, Cassoli 1980, Caterini 1921, Portis 1887
Date: EP
Fauna: Alectoris, Columba livia
Det: Cassoli, Bedetti
Stored: Istituto di Paleontologia Umana.
Date: LP?
Fauna: Columba oenas, Turdus iliacus
Det.: Del Campana
Notes: A. k. a. Miniera della Polveriera

IT 79 Monte San Giovanni (Sardegna)

Type: c
Sources: Cassoli 1980, Lambrecht 1933, Louchart 2002, Lydekker 1891b, Newton 1922a
Date: MP
Fauna: Milvus milvus, Aquila sp., Aegypius monachus, Tyto balearica cyrneichnusae, Alaudidae sp., Hirundo sp., Turdus sp., Fringillidae sp.
Det.: Lydekker, Louchart
Stored: BMNH or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bâle?

IT 83 Monte delle Gioie (Lazio)

Type: o
Sources: Bedetti 2003, Cassoli 1978,1980, Taschini 1967
Date: MP (Protopontinian, "Riss II = Nomentana II") IS 7
Fauna: Phalacrocorax carbo, Ciconia ciconia, Cygnus olor, Cygnus columbianus, Cygnus sp., Anser albifrons, Anser sp., Branta leucopsis, Anas sp., Aythya ferina, Grus grus
Det.: Bedetti, Blanc, Cardini

IT 85 Notarchirico (Basilicata)

Type: o
Sources: Belli et al. 1991, Cassoli et al. 1999, Piperno 2002
Layer: Upper A-ALFA
Date: MP Acheulean c. 500-650 KA BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Anser cf fabalis, Anas acuta, Anas penelope, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata
Det.: Cassoli

IT 95 Riparo Salvini (Lazio)

Alt: 35 Type: c
Sources: Bietti 1984a, Recchi 1996
Date: LP LG Final Epigravettian "Bölling/Dryas II" 14C=12,400±170 – 13,365±190 BP
Fauna: Anser albifrons, Branta bernicla, Anas acuta, Circus cyaneus, Perdix perdix, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Apus apus, Coracias garrulus, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Motacilla cinerea, Hirundo rustica, Turdus iliacus, Turdus merula, Turdus philomelos, Lanius minor, Garrulus glandarius, Nucifraga cayocatactes, Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Sturnus vulgaris, Fringilla coelebs, Carduelis chlorus, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Det.: Recchi, Cassoli

IT 97 Riparo di Fumane (Verona)

Alt: 470 Type: c
Sources: Bartolomei et al. 1994, Bon et al. 1991, Cassoli & Tagliacozzi 1992a,c,1994a,b, Fiore et al. 2004
Layer: D1d-e
Date: LP Aurignacian (base D1d) Gravettian/Epigravettian (D1d)
Fauna: Buteo lagopus, Circus pygargus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Nyctea scandiaca, Asio otus, Aegolius funereus, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Carduelis chloris, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: D1-1c
Date: LP Aurignacian
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Buteo lagopus, Aquila chrysaetos, Circus pygargus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco columbarius, Tetrao tetrix, Crex crex, Scolopax rusticola, Asio otus, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Turdus pilaris, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Loxia curvirostra, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: D3-2
Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=31700+1200-1100, 32300±400 BP (D3b)
Fauna: Falco vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco columbarius, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: D6-3
Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=31700+1200-1100, 32300±400 BP (D3b)
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Buteo lagopus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco columbarius, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Actitis hypoleucos, Tringa glareola, Asio otus, Turdus viscivorus, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Carduelis cannabina, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: D7-6
Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=32300±500 BP (D6)
Fauna: Buteo lagopus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco columbarius, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Actitis hypoleucos, Asio otus, Eremophila alpestris, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Loxia curvirostra, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: A2-1
Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=40 000+4000-3000, 36500±600, 31600±400, 32800±400, 32100±500 BP (A2), 31900±500 BP (A1)
Fauna: Buteo lagopus, Falco vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Rallus aquaticus, Crex crex, Scolopax rusticola, Vanellus vanellus, Columba oenas, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Dendrocopos leucotos, Lullula arborea, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Turdus viscivorus, Turdus pilaris, Pica pica, Garrulus glandarius, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Loxia pytyopsittacus, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: A3
Date: LP Aurignacian
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Asio otus, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Montifringilla nivalis
Layer: A4I-4
Date: LP Uncertain (transitional MP/UP, Uluzzian?) industry
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A4II
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Scolopax rusticola, Asio otus, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A6-5
Date: LP Mousterian, TL (A6) = 50±8 KA BP, C14 (A5+A6) = 38,250±700, 38,800±750 BP
Fauna: Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus cf mutus, Crex crex, Scolopax rusticola, Oriolus oriolus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus corax
Layer: A7
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A9-8
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Alectoris graeca, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A10
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Falco subbuteo, Tetrao tetrix, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A11
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Crex crex, Recurvirostra avosetta, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: A13-12
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Lagopus cf mutus, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Notes: Hystrix present
Layer: Rim
Date: LP (unstratified)
Fauna: Aythya ferina, Alectoris graeca, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: BR12-1
Date: LP Mousterian, TL (BR11) = 57±8 KA BP, (BR12) = 55±7 KA BP
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Falco vespertinus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Asio otus, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: S9-1
Date: LP Mousterian, TL (S7) = 79±13 KA BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Falco eleonorae, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Montifringilla nivalis, Loxia curvirostra
Det.: Cassoli, Gala
Notes: A. k. a. Abri de Fumane.

IT 105 Contrada Tabuna (Ragusa)

Type: c
Sources: Cassoli 1980, Pavia 2000
Date: MP "Elephas falconeri faunal complex"
Fauna: Anatidae indet., Pterocles alchata, Tetrax tetrax
Det: Cassoli, Pavia
note: A. k. a. Tabuna a Ragusa
Stored: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Comiso

IT 113 Torre in Pietra (Lazio)

Type: o
Sources: Bedetti 2003, Cassoli 1978,1980
Layer: d Date: MP "Mousterian" IS 7
Fauna: Phalacrocorax carbo, Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Aythya nyroca, Pandion haliaetus, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus merula, Nucifraga caryocatactes
Layer: m Date: MP Acheulean "Kataglacial Riss I" IS 9 K/Ar = 431-438 KA BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya nyroca
Det.: Bedetti, Cassoli

IT118 Vitinia (Lazio)

Type: o
Sources: Bedetti 2001, 2003, Caloi et al. 1983
Layer: e
Date: MP Late MP, IS 9?
Fauna: Podiceps grisegena, Ardea purpurea, Anser sp., Branta ruficollis, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata, Somateria mollissima, Mergus serrator, Fulica atra, Gallinago sp., Sturnus vulgaris, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
Det.: Cuggiani, Cassoli, Bedetti
Stored: Museo di Paleontologia dell'Università di Roma, Vertebrati (MPUR/V)
Notes: A. k. a. Quartaccio quarry

IT 119 Abri Soman (Verona)

Type: c
Sources: Cassoli & Tagliacozzi 1992b, Tagliacozzo & Cassoli 1994
Date: LP Epigravettian, Dryas II-Alleröd (14C=11880±170-10370±110 BP)
Layer: Phase I
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix
Date: LP Epigravettian, Dryas III (14C=11880±170-10370±110 BP)
Layer: Phase II
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Coturnix coturnix
Det: Cassoli
Notes: A. k. a. Riparo di Soman.

IT 123 Spinagallo (Sicilia)

Type: c
Alt: 120
Sources: Pavia 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007
Date: MP, c. 500 KA BP (AAR date) (OIS 6-22)
Fauna: Geronticus eremita, Anser erythropus, Branta cf ruficollis, Anas crecca/querquedula, Anas penelope, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae, Falco columbarius, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Grus melitensis, Recurvirostra avosetta, Scolopax rusticola, Larus minutus, Larus ridibundus, Cuculus canorus, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Tyto mourerchauvireae, Otus scops, Athene trinacriae, Aegolius martae, Caprimulgus cf europaeus, Apus melba, Apus apus/pallidus, Dendrocopos leucotos, Picus viridis, Calandrella brachydactyla, Lullula arborea, Hirundo daurica/rustica, Anthus sp., Prunella modularis, Erithacus rubecula, Oenanthe cf hispanica, Monticola saxatilis/solitarius, Turdus sp., Sylvia sp., Phylloscopus sibilatrix/collybita, Lanius senator, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvidae n. sp., Sturnus unicolor/vulgaris, Petronia petronia, Fringilla coelebs/montifringilla, Serinus sp., Carduelis chloris, Carduelis sp., Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Emberiza spp.
Stored: Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (Università “La Sapienza”) di Roma.
Det: Pavia


JAPAN

JA 3 Gohezu-dou fissure (Iejima)

Sources: Rich et al. 1986, Matsuoka 2000
Date: LP
Fauna: Corvus macrorhynchos, Corvus connectens
Stored: Okinawa Prefectural Museum
Notes: A. k. a. Gohezudu.

JA 9 Minatogawa (Okinawa)

Sources: Hasegawa 1980, Rich et al. 1986, Matsuoka 1998, 2000
Date: LP 14C=9865±35-18250±650 BP
Fauna: Nycticorax caledonicus, Ardeidae sp., Anser anser, Anas falcata, Buteo buteo, Gallirallus okinawae, Porzana fusca, Scolopax mira, Columba janthina, Treron formosae, Columbidae sp., Otus bakkamoena, Hypsipetes amaurotis, cf Zoothera major, Turdus pallidus, Turdinae sp., Garrulus lidthi, Corvus connectens
Stored: Okinawa Prefectural Museum, Seiho Oyama pers. coll., National Science Museum, Tokyo

JA 10 Nojiri-ko (Nagano)

Alt: 645
Type: o
Date: LP, 11,000-53,000 BP
Sources: Kondo & Mazima 2001, Ono 1980a,b, Rich et al. 1986
Fauna: Phalacrocorax cf carbo, Anser fabalis, Phasianus soemmerringii
Notes: A. k. a. Tategahana

JA 12 Pinza-abu (Miyako)

Type: c
Sources: Matsuoka 2000, Rich et al. 1986, Ono & Hasegawa 1985a
Date: LP 14C = 25,800±900, 26,800±1,300 BP
Fauna: Phalacrocorax filamentosus, Anser anser, Aix galericulata, Buteo buteo, Butastur indicus, Haliaeetus cf pelagicus, Coturnix japonica, Exfalcatoria chinensis, Grus sp. nov., Turnix suscitator, Gallirallus aquaticus,, Rallus sp. nov., Porzana fusca, Scolopax mira, Scolopacidae sp., Columba janthina, Streptopelia orientalis, Strigidae sp., Hypsipetes amaurotis, cf Zoothera major, Turdus pallidus, Sylviinae sp., Emberizidae sp., Corvus macrorhynchus, Corvus connectens
Det: Matsuoka
Stored: National Science Museum, Tokyo

JA 13 Shimozibaru-do (Okinawa)

Type: c
Sources: Matsuoka 2000, Ono et al. 1982, Rich et al. 1986
Date: LP, 14C = 15,200±100 BP
Fauna: Anas acuta, Erithacus sp., Turdinae sp.
Stored: Okinawa Prefectural Museum
Notes: A. k. a. Shimojiburu cave and Shimojibaru-dou cave. On Kume island SW Okinawa.

JA 18 Yage (Shizuoka)

Sources: Rich et al. 1986, Tomida 1978, Nojima 2002
Layer: Upper Date: LP Würm
Fauna: Phasianus colchicus versicolor
Layer: Unknown Date: MP/LP “Mindel/Riss” - Würm
Fauna: Haliaeetus cf pelagicus, Spizaetus cf nipalensis, Gyps sp., Phasianus cf colchicus


LEBANON

LI 3 Saaidé II (Béqaa valley)

Alt: 1035
Type: o
Sources: Schroeder 1991, Churcher 1994
Date: LP LG Natufian
Fauna: Anser anser/albifrons, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Netta rufina, Aquila cf heliaca., Otis tarda, Columba cf livia
Det: Churcher


MALTA

MA 1 Benghisa gap

Type: c
Sources: Borg 1999, Lambrecht 1933, (Despott 1929)
Fauna: Cygnus equitum, Cygnus falconeri, Branta leucopsis, Gyps melitensis, Tetrax tetrax
Det.: Lambrecht, Bate

MA 4 Ghar Dalam

Type: c
Sources: Bate 1916b,1920, Borg 1999, Fischer & Stephan 1974, Lambrecht 1933, Northcote 1992, Olson 1976, Savona-Ventura & Mifsud 1998, Vaufrey 1929, Wolf 1938-41 (Despott 1925,1927, Caton-Thompson 1923)
Layer: VI-VII, "Hippopotamus layer" Date: MP?, U/Th = 115±10 KA BP, ESR = 180 KA BP
Fauna: Anas acuta, Coturnix coturnix, Alectoris cf graeca, Tyto alba, Otus scops, Hirundo sp., Turdus sp., Sturnus vulgaris, Carduelis chloris, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Det.: Fischer & Stephan
Notes: Scolopax ghardalamensis redetermined as Coturnix coturnix by Olson (1976).
Layer: IVb/c - Va/b, “Cervus" or Pitymys melitensis-layer Date: LP
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Turdus sp., cf Amandava amandava
, Corvus cf frugilegus
Det.: Fischer & Stephan
Notes: Scolopax ghardalamensis redetermined as Coturnix coturnix by Olson (1976).
Layer: Unstratified
Fauna: Cygnus sp., Cygnus cygnus, Cygnus falconeri, Cygnus equitum, Anser fabalis, Anser sp., Branta bernicla, Branta leucopsis, Tadorna ferruginea, Tadorna tadorna, Anas sp., Aythya ferina, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Gyps melitensis, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Columba sp., Grus grus, Grus melitensis, Otis tarda, Tetrax aff tetrax, Strix melitensis, Asio flammeus, Strix aluco, Turdus cf merula, Turdus philomelos?, Corvus cf frugilegus, Corvus cf corone, Corvus corax?
Det.: Lambrecht, Bate, Lydekker? Stored: BMNH, National Museum of Natural History, Malta
Notes: A. k. a. Har Dalam. Lambrecht's record of Gyps melitensis from this site is erroneous according to Brodkorb (1964), but is listed by Borg (1999).

MA 8 Tal Herba fissure

Type: c
Sources: Borg 1999, Lambrecht 1933, Northcote 1992
Fauna: Cygnus equitum, Cygnus falconeri, Cygnus sp., Gyps melitensis, Accipiter nisus, Aquila chrysaetos, Circus aeruginosus, Columba cf livia, Columba palumbus, Asio flammeus
Stored: BMNH
Notes: A. k. a. Tal Ghaqba.

MA 9 Tal-Gnien

Type: c
Sources: Borg 1999, Harrison 1979a, Northcote 1983,1985,1992
Date: LP?
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus, Cygnus falconeri, Cygnus equitum, Anser small sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Grus grus, Grus melitensis
Stored: BMNH

MA 10 Zebbug Cave

Type: c
Sources: Borg 1999, Lambrecht 1933, Lydekker 1890,1891, Northcote 1985,1992, Parker 1869, Wolf 1938-41 (Despott 1927, Parker 1865)
Fauna: Cygnus cygnus, Cygnus falconeri, Cygnus olor, Cygnus equitum, Branta bernicla?, Anas sp.?, Gyps melitensis, Grus grus, Grus melitensis, Tyto melitensis?
Stored: BMNH
Notes: A. k. a. Jebbug


MOLDOVA

MO 1 Brynseny I

Type: c
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1975, Ganya 1965,1969, Ganya & Ketraru 1965, Mlíkovský 2001 (Ganya 1972)
Layer: Upper
Date: LP UP "Szeletian" 14C=14,700-26,600 BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Anser sp., , Falco tinnunculus, Buteo lagopus, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Gallus sp., Tetrax tetrax, Asio sp., Otus scops, Turdus sp., Corvus monedula, Garrulus glandarius, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Layer: Middle
Date: LP UP "Szeletian" 14C=14,700-26,600 BP
Fauna: Aythya nyroca, Falco tinnunculus, Falco sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix, Tetrax tetrax, Galerida cristata, Corvus monedula, Corvus sp., Garrulus glandarius
Layer: Lower
Date: LP UP "Szeletian" 14C=14,700-26,600 BP
Fauna: Anser anser, Anas sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Falco peregrinus, Falco vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco sp., Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Tetrax tetrax, Asio flammeus, Melanocorypha calandra, Turdus viscivorus, Lanius collurio, Corvus sp., Corvus monedula, Corvus corax, Pica pica
Det.: Voinstvenskii, Umanskaya
Notes: A. k. a. Brinzeni, Brynzeny.

MO 5 Brynseny II

Type: c
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich & Lakerbai n. d., Ganya 1969
Date: LP UP "Szeletian"
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Coturnix coturnix
Det: Ganya


MONTENEGRO

MN 2 Malisina stijena

Alt: 800
Type: c
Sources: Bogicevic & Dimitrijevic 2004, Gál, Dimitrijevic & Kessler 2003, Malez 1983a,1988b, Malez, Malez & Paunovic 1988
Date: LP LG Bölling or later
Fauna: Anas sp., Falco sp., Lagopus mutus, Lagopus lagopus, Alectoris graeca, Gallinago gallinago, Larus sp., Turdus merula, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det: Malez
Date: LP, Late Palaeolithic
Layer: 1
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Lullula arborea, Anthus cf campestris, Fringilla montefringilla, Carduelis chloris
Date: LP, Late Palaeolithic
Layer: 2
Fauna: aff Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Anas querquedula, Anas crecca, Aythya nyroca, Anseriformes indet., Falco cf vespertinus, Falco cf columbarius, Falco cf subbuteo, Falco sp., Lagopus lagopus, Hirundo cf daurica, Lanius collurio, Pica pica, Turdus merula, Turdus cf iliacus, Sturnus vulgaris, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
Date: LP, Late Palaeolithic, 14C = 13,780±140 BP
Layer: 3b
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Falco columbarius, Lagopus lagopus, Sturnus vulgaris, Passeriformes sp.
Date: LP, Mousterian, 14C >38,000 BP
Layer: 9
Fauna: Anas sp.
Date: LP, Mousterian
Layer: 14
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus
Date: LP, Mousterian
Layer: 15
Fauna: Corvus frugilegus
Det: Gál, Kessler


NETHERLANDS

NE 1 Bunde (Limburg)

Delete site, probably Late Holocene (Clason 1968, Meijer in litt.).


NE 2 Maastricht-Belvédére (Limburg)

Type: o
Sources: van Kolfschoten 1985, 1993
Layer: 4B-C Date: Late MP Belvedere interglacial (IS 7?)
Fauna: cf Anas platyrhynchos
Layer: 5 Date: Late MP IS 6?
Fauna: Nyctea scandiaca
Det.: Weesie


PORTUGAL

PG 2 Grotte de Furninha (Leiria)

Type: c
Sources: Harlé 1909,1911, Lambrecht 1933, Roche 1972, Villalta 1964, Wolf 1938-41
Date: LP
Layer: 4 m
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 4.50 m
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Tadorna tadorna, Anas crecca, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 6 m
Fauna: Tadorna tadorna, Columba livia, Pica cf pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 7 m
Fauna: Calonectris diomedea, Cygnus cf olor, Tadorna tadorna, Melanitta nigra, Asio flammeus, Turdus philomelos, Turdus iliacus, Turdus pilaris, Corvus cf monedula, Pica cf pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer 7.50 m
Fauna: Tadorna tadorna, Alectoris rufa, Perdix cf perdix, Bubo bubo, Turdus philomelos, Corvus cf corone, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 8.80 m
Fauna: Tadorna tadorna, Corvus cf monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 9.30 m
Fauna: Tadorna tadorna
Det: Newton

PG 3 Gruta da Figueira Brava (Setúbal)

Alt: 5 Type: c
Sources: Mourer-Chauviré & Antunes 1991,2000
Date: LP Mousterian 14C=30,930±700 BP, U/Th=30,561+10,726-11759, 44,806+13,959,-15,889 BP
Layer: 2
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Podiceps nigricollis, Puffinus holeae, Anas platyrhynchos, Melanitta nigra, Melanitta fusca, Clangula hyemalis, Aquila chrysaetos, Hieraetus fasciatus, Accipiter nisus, Milvus migrans, Falco cf tinnunculus, Alectoris rufa, Grus primigenia, Numenius phaeopus, Calidris canutus, Larus fuscus, Pinguinus impennis, Columba palumbus, Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Passeriformes sp.
Date: LP Mousterian
Layer: 3
Fauna: Puffinus holeae, Sula bassana, Anas platyrhychos, Melanitta nigra, Aquila chrysaetos, Milvus migrans, Alectoris rufa, Scolopax rusticola, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Date: LP Mousterian
Layer: 4
Fauna. Puffinus holeae, Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré


ROMANIA

RM 2 Betfia (Bihor)

Type: c
Sources: Gál 2000, 2001, Jánossy 1972a,1976c,1977a,1978,1979,1980,1985, Jurcsák & Kessler 1973,1986, Kessler 1975,1977b,1978a,1985, Kormos 1911, Kretzoi 1941, 1961a, Mlíkovský 2002, Wolf 1938-41 (Capek 1917)
Layer: Loc. 1 Date: EP, “Waalian” c. 1.3 MA BP
Fauna: Tetrao partium
Det.: Jánossy
Layer: Loc. 2 Date: EP MNQ 19, “Waalian” c. 1.3 MA BP
Fauna: Pelargosteon tothi, Anas aff acuta, Anas aff clypeata, Anas aff querquedula, Anas cf crecca, Anas cf strepera, Aythya cf nyroca, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Tetrao partium, Francolinus capeki, Perdix perdix jurcsáki, Otis kalmani, Crex cf crex, Gallinago cf media, Limosa aff limosa, Bubo aff bubo, Asio aff flammeus, Glaucidium cf passerinum, Caprimulgus capeki, Dendrocopos cf media, Jynx cf torquilla, Alauda cf arvensis, Hirundo sp., Motacilla alba, Saxicola cf torquata, Turdus cf viscivorus, Turdus cf merula, Turdus cf philomelos, Acrocephalus cf palustris, Sylvia cf communis, Hippolais sp., Parus cf lugubris, Parus cf major, Aegithalos cf caudatus, Certhia cf familiaris, Pyrrhocorax aff graculus, Corvus aff monedula, Garrulus aff glandarius, Lanius cf minor, Sturnus cf vulgaris, Coccothraustes cf coccothraustes, Fringilla cf coelebs, Passer cf montanus?
Det.: Capek, Lambrecht, Jánossy Stored: Geological Institute, Budapest (in part)
Layer: Loc. 3 ("punct. fos. III") Date: EP, “Waalian” c. 1.3 MA BP
Fauna: Anas clypeata, Tetrao cf tetrix, Perdix perdix, Otis tarda/lambrechti, Corvus cf monedula
Det.: Kessler
Layer: Loc. 3? Date: EP, “Waalian” c. 1.3 MA BP
Fauna: Otis lambrechti
Det.: Jánossy
Layer: Loc. 5 Date: EP "Middle Cromerian-Biharian", “Menapian”, c. 1.1 MA BP, MNQ 20
Fauna: Pelargosteon tothi, Mergus connectens, Falco tinnunculus, Falco cf subbuteo, Tetrao urogallus?, Tetrao partium, Perdix perdix jurcsáki, Otis lambrechti, Sterna sp, cf Asio flammeus, Turdicus tenuis, Corvus betfianus, Pyrrhocorax graculus vetus
Det.: Kretzoi, Jánossy Stored: Museum Regional Oradea (in part)
Layer: Loc. 5 ("punct. fos. V") Date: EP "Middle Cromerian-Biharian" , “Menapian”, c. 1.1 MA BP, MNQ 20
Fauna: Tadorna cf tadorna, Aquila aff pomarina, Tetrao urogallus, Perdix perdix, Perdix perdix jurcsáki, Otis tarda/lambrechti, Tringa sp., Galerida cristata, Corvus corax, Corvus corone/betfianus
Det.: Kessler Stored: Museum Regional Oradea (in part)
Layer: Loc. 7 ("punct. fos. VII") Date: EP/MP, c. 0.6 - 1.1 MA BP, MNQ 19-21
Fauna: Anas strepera, Aythya nyroca, Perdix perdix, Tringa glareola/ochropus, Anthus aff trivialis?, Acrocephalus cf arundinaceus, Turdus merula, Lanius cf collurio
Det.: Kessler
Notes: Upper layers at this locality are the youngest deposit in Betfia but the locality has a very large stratigraphic range.
Layer: Loc. 9 Date: EP MNQ 19, “Waalian”, c. 1.3 MA BP, slightly older than loc.2
Fauna; Ciconia stehlini, Tetrao partium, Francolinus capeki, Perdix perdix jurcsáki, Otis lambrechti, Otis kálmáni, Vanellus nov. sp., Caprimulgus capeki, Eurystomus nov. sp., Merops nov. sp. + 83 spp.
Det: Gál
Layer: Loc. 13 (punct. fos. XIII) Date: EP "Villafranchien superior" , “Eburonian Interstadial” c. 1.6 MA BP, MN 18
Fauna: Anas cf crecca, Anas querquedula, Tetrao cf tetrix, Francolinus capeki, Tringa aff totanus, Turdus merula, Acrocephalus cf arundinaceus Det.: Kessler
Layer: "breccia cu microfauna" Date: EP
Fauna: Falco subbuteo, Asio cf otus, Anthus aff trivialis, Garrulus glandarius, Turdus merula
Det.: Kessler
Layer: "Aven" Date: EP "Middle Cromerian-Biharian", Allophaiomys pliocaenicus biozone, c. 1.2 MA BP.
Fauna: Anas querquedula, Anas strepera, Anas cf penelope, Anas clypeata, Aythya nyroca, Falco subbuteo, Falco cf vespertinus, Francolinus capeki, Tringa glareola, Dendrocopos major, Corvus frugilegus, Corvus cf monedula, Garrulus glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Kessler
Layer: ? Date: EP
Fauna: Pelargosteon tothi, Anas submajor, Anas cf querquedula, Anas cf crecca, Anas cf clypeata, Anas strepera, Mergus connectens, Aythya cf nyroca, Tadorna cf tadorna, Aquila aff pomarina, Circus sp., Falco cf peregrinus, Falco aff cherrug, Falco aff subbuteo, Falco cf vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus atavus, Tetrao praeurogallus, Tetrao partium, Francolinus capeki, Perdix perdix jurcsáki, Otis lambrechti, Otis kalmani, Crex cf crex Limosa aff limosa, Tringa aff erythropus, Tringa glareola/ochropus, Tringa aff totanus, Actitis aff hypoleucos, Gallinago cf media, Vanellus cf vanellus, Glaucidium sp., Asio cf flammeus, Asio aff otus, Otus sp., Caprimulgus capeki, Dendrocopos submajor, Dendrocopos cf medius, Jynx cf torquilla, Alauda cf arvensis, Galerida cf cristata, Hirundo cf rustica, Delichon cf urbica, Motacilla cf alba, Anthus aff trivialis, Saxicola cf torquata, Turdus aff viscivorus, Turdus cf philomelos, Turdus cf merula, Turdus cf iliacus, Turdicus tenuis, Acrocephalus aff arundinaceus, Acrocephalus cf palustris, Sylvia cf communis, Parus cf major, Parus aff lugubris, Aegithalos cf caudatus, Certhia cf familiaris, Lanius aff collurio, Lanius cf minor, Sturnus cf vulgaris, Corvus cf corone, Corvus betfianus, Corvus aff monedula, Pyrrhocorax graculus vetus, Garrulus aff glandarius, Coccothraustes cf coccothraustes, Carduelis sp., Fringilla cf coelebs, Passer cf montanus
Det.: Capek, Kretzoi, Jánossy, Kessler
Notes: A. k. a. Püspökfürdö, Episcopia & Somlyohegy

RM 12 Pestera Bordu Mare (Hunedoara)

Alt: 650 Type: c
Sources: Gál 2003, Jurcsák & Kessler 1986,1988 Kessler 1981,1985
Date: LP "Würm propriu" 14C (Mousterian III-IV) = 39,5-43,6 KA BP (Climatic phases Nandru 1,2 and Ohaba A,B)
Fauna: Haliaetus albicilla, Gypaetus barbatus, Falco vespertinus, Lagopus cf mutus, Perdix perdix, Gallus gallus, Turdus merula, Turdus pilaris, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus corone, Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Fringilla montefringilla, Carduelis chloris
Date: Aurignacian?
Fauna: Plegadis falcinellus, Anas platyrhynchos, Gypaetus barbatus, Falco sp., Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Gallus gallus, Scolopax rusticola, Tringa totanus, Hirundo rustica, Turdus pilaris, Garrulus glandarius, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax
Det.: Kessler, Gál
Notes: A. k. a. Ohaba-Ponor, Ponor-Ohaba, Pestera Bordul Mare & Nandór-höhle

RM 13 Pestera Cioarei (Gorj)

Alt: 350 Type: c
Sources: Jurcsák & Kessler 1986,1988, Kessler 1985, Kessler & Gál 2000, Terzea 1987
Date: LP
Layer: S I, Cas. 20, 0,95 m
Fauna: Tetrao urogallus
Layer: S IV, caroul 1, 0,60 m
Fauna: Rallus aquaticus
Layer S II, caroul 3, 7b
Fauna: Porzana porzana
Layer; S II, caroul 4, b5
Fauna: Tringa ochropus
Layer; S II, caroul 4, b10
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Carduelis carduelis
Layer; S II, caroul 4, b14
Fauna: Corvidae sp., Fringillidae sp.
Layer; S II, caroul 4, b16
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Tringa hypoleuca
Layer; S II, caroul 4, b22
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Fringillidae sp.
Layer; S II, caroul 4, 1,05-1,10 m
Fauna: Crex crex, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Fringillidae sp.
Layer: S III, 1,10 m
Fauna: Pandion haliaetus
Layer: S VI, 2,00-2,10 m
Fauna: Bubo bubo
Layer: S VII, 1,90-2,00 m
Fauna: Surnia ulula
Layer: S VIII, 0,60-0,70 m
Fauna: Rallus aquaticus, Tetrao tetrix
Layer: S VIII, 0,70-0,80 m
Fauna: Plegadis falcinellus, Rallus aquaticus, Tetrao tetrix, Falco naumanni, Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: S VIII, 1,70-1,80 m
Fauna: Bubo bubo
Layer: S VIII, 2,20-2,30 m
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos
Layer: S VIII, 2,40-2,50 m
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix
Layer: S X, 0,85-0,95 m
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus
Layer: S XII, 0,50-0,95 m
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Turdus viscivorus
Layer: S XII, 0,95-1,05 m
Fauna: Turdus torquatus, Turdus pilaris
Layer: S XI, 1,05-1,15 m
Fauna: Rallus aquaticus
Layer: S XII, 1,15-1,25 m
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Bubo bubo, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: S XII, 1,25-1,35 m
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Turdus merula
Layer: S XII, 1,45-1,55 m
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Turdus viscivorus
Det.: Gál, Kessler

RM 16 Pestera Curata (Hunedoara)

Type: c
Sources: Fischer & Stephan 1977, Gál 2003, Jánossy 1965a,1977a,1981a, Jurcsák & Kessler 1986,1988, Kessler 1985
Layer: 5-6 ("Untere, rote Schicht")
Date: LP Mousterian I, Early Würm, "Würm I-II" /Nandru/Ohaba/Herculane phases
Fauna: Anas penelope, Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya nyroca, Pernis apivorus, Aegypius monachus, Buteo lagopus, Aquila clanga, Haliaeetus albicilla, Falco tinnunculus, Tetrao tetrix, Tetrao urogallus, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Strix nebulosa, Asio flammeus, Picus canus, Turdus pilaris, Sturnus vulgaris, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Det.: Jánossy, Fischer & Stephan, Kessler, Gál
Notes: A. k. a. Nandru.

RM 18 Pestera Gura Cheii (Brasov)

Alt: 750 Type: c
Sources: Gál 1998, Jurcsák & Kessler 1988
Layer: 102-130 cm Date: LP Würm II
Fauna: Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus mutus, Athene noctua, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Nucifraga caryocatactes
Layer: 70-102 cm Date: LP Würm II/III Interstadial, Aurignacian
Fauna: Lagopus mutus, Turdus philomelos, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 30-70 cm Date: LP Würm III, Gravettian
Fauna: Tetrastes bonasia, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Crex crex, Porzana porzana, Aegolius funereus, Bombycilla garrulus, Turdus iliacus, Monticola saxatilis, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Gál, Kessler


RUSSIA

RO 2 Afontova Gora II (Krasnoyarsk)

Type: o
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1975, Panteleyev in litt., 1999 (Tugarinov 1932)
Date: LP UP Upper Layer 14C=11,330±270 BP Lower Layer 14C=20900±300 BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Anas querquedula, Falco rusticolus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrastes bonasia, Corvus corax, Corvus monedula
Det.: Tugarinov
Stored: Dept of Ornithology, Zoological Institute, St Petersburg

RO 2 Afontova Gora III (Krasnoyarsk)

Type: o
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1975, Panteleyev in litt., 1999, Tugarinov 1932 (Gromov 1948)
Date: LP UP Upper Layer ca 10,000-11,000 BP, Middle Layer 16,000-18,000 BP, Lower Layer ca 21,000 BP
Fauna: Falco rusticolus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Corvus corax
Det.: Tugarinov
Stored: Dept of Ornithology, Zoological Institute, St Petersburg

RO 3 Akhshatyr (Krasnodar)

Alt: 320 Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov 1999, Burchak-Abramovich 1969a,1975, Burchak-Abramovich & Lakerbai 1974, Gerasimov 1978, Musil 1980b, Potapova 1992, Vereshchagin 1959 (Vekilova & Grushchenko 1972)
Layer: 2        Date: LP UP 14C=19,000±500 BP (middle part of layer 2), 30,000±1900 BP (Gravettian)
Fauna: Accipiter gentilis, Aquila chrysaetos, Columba livia, Melanocorypha sp., Sitta europaea, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 3        Date: LP Mousterian 14C=35,000±2000 BP (upper part of layer 3)
Fauna: Hirundo rustica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: Mixed        Date: LP Mousterian-UP 14C=19-112 KA BP
Fauna: Phasianus colchicus, Turdus pilaris, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det: Baryshnikov, Panteleev, Potapova
Note: A. k. a. Akhstyrskaya

RO 4 Avdeyevo (Kursk)

Sources: Baryshnikov & Potapova 1992, Kalyakin 2001
Date: LP UP 14C=17200-22700 BP
Fauna: Cygnus olor, Cygnus cygnus, Cygnus sp., Anser anser,. Tadorna tadorna, Tadorna ferruginea, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Clangula hyemalis, Buteo rufinus, Aquila rapax, Accipitridae sp. Lagopus lagopus, Lyrurus tetrix, Grus sp., Larus argentatus, Larus hyperboreus, Corvus corax Det: Voinstvenskii, Kalyakin?

RO 5 Barakaeskaya Peshchera (Krasnodar)

Alt: 900        
Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov 1991, Baryshnikov & Cherepanov 1985, Hoffecker & Baryshnikov 1998
Layer: 2        
Date: LP Late Mousterian, Middle Würm
Fauna: Anas querquedula/crecca, Columba livia
Layer: 4        
Date: LP Late Mousterian, Middle Würm
Fauna: Corvus corax
Det: Burchak-Abramovich
Layer: Unknown.
Date: LP Late Mousterian, Middle Würm
Fauna: Melanocorypha sp., Lullula arborea, Anthus trivialis, Rhodopechys sanguinea, Passeriformes sp.
Det: Panteleev
Notes: A k a Barakayevskaya, Barakaevskaya

RO 7 Bol'shoi Glukhoi (Middle Urals)

Type: c
Sources: Potapova 1991, 1999, 2001, 2003
Layer IV Date: LP 14C=15,560±130 BP
Fauna: Nyctea scandiaca
Layer: VII Date: LP UP
Fauna: Anser sp., Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao urogallus, Tetrao tetrix, Bonasa bonasia, Strix aluco, Strix sp., Asio flammeus, Dendrocopos major, Pica pica, Loxia curvirostra
Layer: IX Date: LP 14C >33,900 BP, 38,200±900 BP
Fauna: Anser cf albifrons, Anser erythropus, Anas cf strepera, Anas penelope, Anas acuta, Buteo sp., Lagopus lagopus, Tetrao tetrix, Strix aluco, Turdus viscivorus
Layer: Unknown Fauna: Branta ruficollis Det.: Potapova
Notes: A. k. a. Bolshaia Glukhaia

RO 9 Khoronkhoi (Buryatia)

Type: o
Sources: Imetchenov & Kalmykov 1988, Lambrecht 1933, Mikhailov & Kurochkin 1988 (Ivanov 1960)
Date: LP/Hol?
Fauna: Struthio sp.
Note: A. k. a. Kharankhoi, Khorenkhoi

RO 10 Dyuktaiskaya Peshchera (Yakutia)

Alt: 112 Type: c
Sources: Tseitlin 1979, Olga Potapova in litt., Zelenkov et al. 2004, Zelenkov in litt. (Mochanov 1970, 1977)
Layer: VIIA-IX
Date: LP UP 12-14 KA BP
Fauna: Anser anser, Anas strepera, Anas formosa, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus,, Larus ridibundus.Sterna hirundo, Strigidae sp.
Layer: All layers
Fauna: Gavia arctica, Gavia stellata, Podiceps nigricollis, Podiceps auritus, Podiceps grisegena, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps sp., Anser n. sp., Anser sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Anas formosa, Anas penelope, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Anas strepera, Anas sp., Aythya fuligula, Aythya sp., Melanitta deglandi, Clangula hyemalis, Mergus serrator, Mergellus n. sp., Milvus migrans, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, Buteo lagopus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco columbarius, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco sp., Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrastes bonasia, Tetrao parvirostris, Tetrao tetrix, Grus leucogeranus, Otis tarda, Pluvialis sp., Tringa ochropus, Tringa glareola, Tringa nebularia, Tringa sp., Xenus cinereus, Calidris sp., Numenius minutus, Numenius phaeopus, Limosa limosa, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago stenura, Gallinago megala,Gallinago sp., Scolopax rusticola, Philomachus pugnax, Phalaropus lobatus, Phalaropus fulicaria, Larus ridibundus, Larus canus, Sterna sp., Streptopelia orientalis, Strix nebulosa, Strix uralensis, Strix sp., Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Eremophila alpestris, Riparia riparia, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica, Anthus sp., Motacillidae sp., Bombycilla cf garrulus, Turdus hortulorum, Turdus pallidus, Turdus pilaris, Turdus sp., Zoothera dauma, Turdidae sp., Perisoreus infaustus, Corvus sp., Fringilla montifringilla, Fringillidae sp., Emberizidae sp., Passeriformes sp.
Notes: A. k. a. Diuktai, Djuktai, Duktai
Det: Kurochkin, Zelenkov, Ballman

RO 12 Gudskiy Naves 1 (Krasnodar)

Alt: 900
Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov 1979, Baryshnikov & Cherepanov 1985, Hoffecker & Baryshnikov 1998
Date: LP Mousterian-Upper Paleolithic
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus corax, Corvus corone
Det.: Pastykhov?
Date: LP Late Mousterian
Fauna: Columba livia, Apus apus, Alauda arvensis, Alaudidae sp., Hirundinidae sp., cf Delichon urbica, Sitta sp., Certhia familiaris, Erithacus rubecula, Loxia curvirostra, aff Pyrrhula pyrrhula, aff Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Passer domesticus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Fringillidae sp.
Det: Panteleev
Notes: A. k. a. Monasheskaya.

RO 13 Ignatievskaya (Urals)

Sources: Baryshnikov & Potapova 1992, Potapova 2001
Date: LP 14C=14,038 BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus
Date: LP
Layer: 2
Fauna: Nyctea scandiaca
Det: Potapova

RO 17 Khotylevo II (Bryansk)

Type: o
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich & Zavernyaev 1985, 1997, Soffer 1985
Date: LP Gravettian - Late Aurignacian 14C=21,170±270-24,960±400 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Gavia arctica, Anas penelope, Anas querquedula, Anas sp., Aythya ferina, Clangula hyemalis, Bucephala clangula, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus lagopus, Tetrastes bonasia, Larus argentatus, Alauda arvensis, Galerida cristata, Corvus corax, Emberiza citrinella
Det.: Burchak-Abramovich, Umanskaya, Bibikova

RO 21 Krasniy Yar (Irkutsk)

Type: o
Sources: Panteleev 1999, Tseitlin 1979, Olga Potapova in litt. (Abramova 1984, 1989, Ermolova 1978)
Layer: Upper Cultural Layer (Layer II)
Date: LP UP c. 16-18 Ka BP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus
Layer: Lower Layer (Layer VII)
Date: LP UP c. 23-24 Ka BP
Fauna: Struthio sp.
Det.: Tattar

RO 24 Mal'ta (Angara)

Type: o
Sources: Ermolova 1978, Gerasimov 1935, Mlíkovsky, Chenzychenova & Filippov 1997, Tseitlin 1979
Date: LP UP c. 21 KA BP End Kargino/Earliest Sartan
Fauna: Anser anser, Larus argentatus
Det.: Tugarinov
Fauna: Corvus corax
Det.: Ermolova
Date: LP , end of LP
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus
Det.: Mlíkovsky
Stored: Buryat Geological Institute, Ulan Ude

RO 27 Mezmaiskaya (Krasnodar)

Alt: 1310 Type: c
Sources: Baryshnikov, Hoffecker & Burgess 1996, Baryshnikov & Potapova 1989, Golovanova et al. 1998
Layer: 1-2         Date: LP/Hol (mixed layer)
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 2         Date: LP IS 3, 14C=32,230±740 BP Mousterian
Fauna: Aegypius monachus, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Emberiza sp..
Layer: 2A         Date: LP IS 3 14C=36,280 ± 540, 35,760 ± 400 BP, Mousterian
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 2B         Date: LP IS 3 14C = 40,660±1600 BP, Mousterian
Fauna: Falco sp., Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 3         Date: LP IS 3, Eastern Micoquian 14C > 45,000 BP
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Baryshnikov & Potapova

RO 32 Selengiskaja Daurija (Buryat-Mongol Republic)

Type: o
Sources: Burchak-Abramovich 1975, Tugarinov 1930
Date: Pleistocene
Fauna: Struthio sp.
Det.: Tugarinov
Notes: Tugarinov's report actually concerns ten different sites with ostrich eggshells along the Selenga, Dschida and Tschikoi rivers.

RO 40 Ust'-Kanskaya Peshchera (Gorno-Altai)

Type: c
Sources: Derevyanklo et al. 2002, Potapova in litt., Rudenko 1960,1961, Tseitlin 1979 (Abramova 1984,1989, Derevyanko et al. 1998, Rudenko 1960, Vereshchagin & Mel'nikova 1958)
Date: LP Mousterian ca 50 KA BP
Fauna: Podiceps auritus, Podiceps cf griseigena, Cygnus cygnus, Anser indicus. Anser anser, Anser sp., Tadorna ferruginea, Anas clypeata, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Anas querquedula, Anas cf platyrhynchos, Anas strepera, Anas sp., Aythya fuligula, Bucephala clangula, Mergus albellus, Falco cherrug, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Aquilacf nipalensis, Circus macrourus, Circus cf cyaneus, Accipiter cf nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Bonasa bonasia, Tetrao tetrix, Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Coturnix coturnix, Perdix perdix, Tetraogallus altaicus, Alectoris chukar, Crex crex, Porzana sp., Pluvialis squatarola, Vanellus vanellus, Numenius arquata, Limosa limosa, Scolopax rusticola, Gallinago cf solitaria, Gallinago gallinago, Tringa cf totanus, Tringa nebularia, Tringa cf glareola, Actitis hypoleucos, Calidris minuta, Calidris cf acuminata, Columba rupestris, Syrrhaptes paradoxus, Larus cf. ichthyaetus, Upupa epops, Asio flammeus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo, Apus pacificus, Hirundapus caudacutus, Alaudidae sp, Delichon urbica, Turdus cf philomelos, Turdus pilaris, Sturnus vulgaris, Oenanthe sp., Petronia petronia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax cf graculus, Corvus corone, Corvus corax, Corvus monedula, Pica pica, Nucifraga caryocatactes
Det: Vereshchagin, Martynovich


SLOVENIA

SL 4 Potocka Zijalka

Alt: 1700 Type: c
Sources: Malez 1972,1973,1983b,1984c,1986, Musil 1980b, Rabeder et al. 2004, Withalm 2004, (Rakovec 1956)
Layer: Upper Culture Layer (Layer 1-7)
Date: LP Aurignacian ("W I/II") C14 = 29,130-35,620 BP, Kalabaki II interstadial?
Fauna: Lagopus mutus, Turdus sp.? ,Garrulus cf glandarius, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Emberiza sp.
Det: Malez, Withalm
Notes: A. k. a. Uschowa-höhle, Pototschnik-höhle


SPAIN

SP 1 Abric Romani (Barcelona)

Type: c
Sources: Villalta 1964, Sanchez Marco 2004, 2007
Date: LP Mousterian "Würm II-III" U/Th=39-60 KA BP, TL=48±3 (1,4 m depth), 56±3 (4 m depth) KA BP.
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Aquila sp., Alectoris barbara, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Villalta
Date: LP, UP, U/Th 39-43 KA BP
Layer: Pou I, Conjunto II, Capa 2
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Date: LP Mousterian
Layer: Pou I, Conjunto II, Capa 4
Fauna: Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Columba livia/oenas
Layer: Pou I, Conjunto II, Indefinite
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Pou I, Conjunto III, N2.1.2
Fauna: Anas acuta
Layer: Pou I, Conjunto III, N2.1.8
Fauna: Delichon urbica
Date: LP, < 40 KA BP
Layer: Coveta Ripoli, Conjunto 2, C.2.0-N.3.0
Fauna: Oenanthe hispanica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Date: LP, < 40 KA BP
Layer: Coveta Ripoli, Conjunto 2, C.2.0-N.4.0
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Date: LP, < 40 KA BP
Layer: Coveta Ripoli, Conjunto 2, C.2.0-N.6.0
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Conjunto II, Terra Negra
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Alectoris rufa, Athene noctua, Turdus sp., Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Conjunto II, Terra blanca vermella
Fauna: Anas acuta, Alectoris rufa, Hirundo rustica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Conjunto II, Terra blanca
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Conjunto II, Terra blanca-gris
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Pinicola enucleator, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det: Sanchez Marco
Notes: A. k. a. El Romani

SP 5 Ambrona (Soria)

Alt: 1100 Type: o
Sources: Jánossy 1982a,1983a, Sánchez 1990,1999b,2005,2007 (Aguirre & Fuentes 1969)
Date: MP "Late Biharian (Verteszöllös/Uppony) - Early Oldenburgian", "Late Cromerian", more than 350 KA BP
Fauna: Anser anser, Tadorna ferruginea, Tadorna sp., Anas acuta, Anas sp., Mergus merganser, Fulica cf atra, Vanellus vanellus
Det.: Sánchez-Marco, Jánossy, Fuentes
Notes: Jánossy ascribed the goose to Anser subanser, but Sánchez considers this a synonym of A. anser.

SP 7 Arbreda (Gerona)

Alt: 200 Type: c
Sources: Vilette 1983, Garcia i Petit 1995a,1997,2002
Layer: 11-12 Date: LP LG Epipaleolithic
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas penelope, Perdix perdix, Columba palumbus, cf Turdus merula, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 13-16 Date: LP Solutrean
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, cf Falco subbuteo, Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba oenas, Turdus torquatus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 17 Date: LP Transition Gravettian/Solutrean
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Perdix perdix, Columba oenas, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: 18-22 Date: LP Gravettian
Fauna: Aythya nyroca, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, cf Limosa limosa, Columba oenas, Athene noctua, Turdus torquatus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax
Layer: 23-28 Date: LP Aurignacian, earliest UP dated to 35480±620-39900±1300 BP
Fauna: Podiceps auritus/nigricollis, Branta bernicla, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Anas querquedula, cf Falco subbuteo, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Charadrius morinellus, cf Limosa limosa, Columba oenas, Asio flammeus, Athene noctua, cf Galerida cristata, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus corax
Det.: Vilette
Date: LP Mousterian, 14C=34,100±750 - 41,400±1,600 BP
Fauna: Anser/Branta sp., Anas sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Accipiter gentilis, Falco sp., Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo, Alectoris sp., Alectoris graeca, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana porzana, Calidris canutus, Chlidonias cf nigra, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Athene noctua, cf Caprimulgus sp., Coracias garrula, Picus viridis, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone
Date: LP Basal Aurignacian (upper level 14C=25830±400 BP)
Fauna: Anser/Branta sp., Anas sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Aquila cf chrysaetos, Falco sp., Falco naumanni, Falco columbarius, Falco subbuteo, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana porzana, Tetrax tetrax, Gallinago gallinago, Columba livia/oenas, Columba oenas, Bubo bubo, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Date: LP Evolved Aurignacian 14C=22130±220 BP
Fauna: Anser/Branta sp., Anas sp., Falco sp., Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus, Alectoris sp., Alectoris graeca, Alectoris rufa, Alectoris barbara, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, cf Charadrius vociferus, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Larus cf melanocephalus, Columba livia/oenas, Columba oenas, Columba palumbus, Otus scops, Athene noctua, Turdus viscivorus, Garrulus glandarius, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula
Date: LP Lower Gravettian
Fauna: Anas sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Falco sp., Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus, Lagopus sp., Alectoris sp., Alectoris graeca/rufa, Alectoris barbara, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana porzana, Tetrax tetrax, Burhinus oedicnemus, Gallinago gallinago, Columba livia/oenas, Strix aluco, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Date: LP Upper Gravettian 14C=20130±220 BP
Fauna: Falco subbuteo, Coturnix coturnix, Pyrrhocorax sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Date LP Solutrean 14C=17720±290, 17320±290 BP
Fauna: Podiceps sp., Anser/Branta sp., Anas sp., Accipiter gentilis, Aquila sp., Falco sp., Falco tinnunculus, Falco columbarius, Phasianidae, Alectoris sp., Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, Passeriformes, Corvidae, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula
Date: LP Post-Solutrean
Fauna: Anser/Branta sp., Falco tinnunculus, Alectoris sp., Alectoris graeca, Coturnix coturnix, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Columba livia/oenas, Pyrrhocorax sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula
Det: Garcia i Petit

SP 10 Atapuerca (Burgos)

Type: c
Sources: Sánchez-Marco 1987a,b,1995a,1999c,2004, van der Made et al. 2003
Layer: SU 0 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 1 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 1/2 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 2 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 3 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 4 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 5 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Columba sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 5/6 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Tringa totanus, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis
Layer: SU 6 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Otis tarda, Limosa limosa, Gallinago gallinago, Lullula arborea, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 6/7 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Gallinago media, Galerida cristata, Turdus merula
Layer: SU 7/8 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Corvus antecorax
Layer: SU 8 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP) MNQ 24
Fauna: Pluvialis apricaria, Calidris alpina, Tringa totanus, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Sterna albifrons, Columba sp., Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Saxicola rubetra, Turdus viscivorus, Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax Fringilla coelebs, Emberiza citrinella
Layer: SU 9 Date: MP Upper middle Acheulean (U/Th 118 000->350 000 BP), MNQ 24. Probably >200 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Pluvialis apricaria, Tringa totanus, Gallinago gallinago, Alauda arvensis, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
La Galeria
Layer: TG 10A/B/GSU 12 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP, IS 10
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TG 10A Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP, IS 10
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Aegypius monachus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Coturnix coturnix, Pluvialis apricaria, Columba livia, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TG 10A/TN 7 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP, IS 10/11
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Aegypius monachus, Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Coturnix coturnix, Otis tetrax, Eudromias morinellus, Pluvialis apricaria, Actitis hypoleucos, Calidris alpina, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Columba livia/oenas, Cuculus canorus, Athene noctua, Alauda arvensis,Oenanthe oenanthe, Ficedula hypoleuca, Carduelis chloris, Pinicola enucleator, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax. graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TG 10B/TN 6 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP, ca IS 10/11
Fauna: Anatidae sp., Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aquaticus, Himantopus himantopus, Glareola pratincola, Eudromias morinellus, Tringa erythropus, Tringa totanus, Actitis hypoleucos, Gallinago gallinago, Gallinago media, Calidris alpina, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Eremophila alpestris, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Prunella collaris, Oenanthe oenanthe, Turdus sp., Turdus cf merula, Emberiza sp., Emberiza citrinella, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TG 10C Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TG 10D/TN 5
Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anatidae sp., Haliaetus albicilla, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Rallus aquaticus, Porzana porzana, Calandrella cf brachydactyla, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TG 11        Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas cf. querquedula, Aegypius monachus, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus aff aquaticus, Porzana cf. pusilla, Porzana porzana, Otis tarda, Himantopus himantopus, Vanellus vanellus, Pluvialis squatarola, Pluvialis apricaria, Limosa limosa, Tringa glareola, Tringa totanus, Gallinago media, Gallinago gallinago, Calidris sp., Calidris alpina, Sterna albifrons, Columba livia/oenas, Cuculus canorus, Athene noctua, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Saxicola cf rubetra, Turdus merula, Turdus pilaris/viscivorus, Turdus cf philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, Emberiza citrinella, Fringilla coelebs, Passer cf montanus, Petronia petronia, Sturnus sp., Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 0 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 1 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Gallinago media, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 1/2 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Columba livia, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 2 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Coturnix coturnix, Pluvialis apricaria, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 2/3 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 3 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Rallus aquaticus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 4 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 4/5 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas sp., Tringa totanus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 5 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 5/6 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Tringa totanus, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 6 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Coturnix coturnix, Otis tarda, Limosa limosa, Gallinago gallinago, Columba livia, Lullula arborea, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 6/7 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Pluvialis sp., , Gallinago media, Calidris canutus, Calidris maritima, Galerida cristata
Layer: GSU 7 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 7/8 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 8 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna. Pluvialis sp., Pluvialis apricaria, cf Tringa stagnatilis, Tringa totanus, Gallinago media, Gallinago gallinago, Calidris alpina, Sterna albifrons, Columba livia, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Saxicola rubetra, Turdus sp., Turdus pilaris/viscivorus, Emberiza citrinella, Fringilla coelebs, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 9 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Pluvialis apricaria, Charadrius cf vociferus, Tringa totanus, Gallinago gallinago, Alauda arvensis, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 10 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas cf querquedula, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Porzana cf pusilla, Vanellus vanellus, Gallinago media, Columba livia, cf Turdus merula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 10/11 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas sp., Anas crecca, Anas cf querquedula, Coturnix coturnix, Pluvialis sp., Tringa totanus, Emberiza citrinella, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 11 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Anas querquedula, Aegypius monachus, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix palaeoperdix, Coturnix coturnix, Himantopus himantopus, Pluvialis apricaria, Pluvialis squatarola, Tringa totanus, Columba livia, Cuculus canorus, Lullula arborea, Turdus pilaris, Fringilla coelebs, cf Passer montanus, cf Sturnus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Layer: GSU 12 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Perdix palaeoperdix, Columba livia, Streptopelia sp., Cuculus canorus, Lullula arborea, Turdus sp., Turdus philomelos, Petronia petronia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus antecorax
Boca Norte
Layer: TN 5 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Rallus aquaticus, Calandrella cf brachydactyla, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TN 6 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas sp., Falco maumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Coturnix coturnix, Himantopus himantopus, Actitis hypoleucos, Gallinago gallinago, Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Lullula arborea, Alauda arvensis, Prunella collaris, Oenanthe oenanthe, Turdus sp., Turdus cf merula, Turdus pilaris/viscivorus, Emberiza sp., Emberiza citrinella, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus antecorax
Layer: TN 7 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Tetrax tetrax, Actitis hypoleucos, Gallinago media, Gallinago gallinago, Cuculus canorus, Oenanthe oenanthe, Ficedula hypoleuca, Carduelis chloris, Pinicola enucleator, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: TN Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Falco naumanni
Layer TN 7/GSU 11 Date: MP, ca 170-350 KA BP
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Columba livia, Corvus antecorax
Det.: Sánchez-Marco

SP 12 Avenc del Gegant (Barcelona)

Type: c
Alt: 0
Source: Villalta 1964, Viñas 1972, Sanchez Marco 2004, 2007
Layer: Punto 20
Date: MP/LP
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Falco sp., Alectoris graeca, Alectoris barbara, Coturnix coturnix, Columba oenas, Turdus merula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Fringilla coelebs
Det: Villalta
Date: LP Mousterian, IS 3/IS 5, 40-100 KA BP
Layer: I
Fauna: Accipitriformes sp., Falco tinnunculus/subbuteo, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Columba livia/oenas, Athene noctua, Anthus spinoletta, Emberiza calandra, Loxia pytyopsittacus, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: I-II
Fauna: Apus apus, Pinicola enucleator, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: IIA
Fauna: Accipiter nisus, Alectoris rufa, Columba livia/oenas, Tyto alba, Athene noctua, Strix aluco, Anthus spinoletta, Turdus viscivorus, Emberiza calandra, Fringilla coelebs, Carduelis chloris, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: IIB
Fauna: Puffinus puffinus, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Columba livia/oenas, Athene noctua, Emberiza calandra, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula
Layer: II
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus corone
Layer: III
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Columba livia/oenas, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: IV
Fauna: Alectoris rufa
Layer: Unstratified
Fauna: Accipitriformes sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus/subbuteo, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus, Columba livia/oenas, Athene noctua, Delichon urbica, Turdus merula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Sturnus sp., Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone
Det: Sanchez-Marco
Notes: A. k. a. Cova del del Gegant.

SP 14 Berroberia (Navarra)
Alt: 120 Type: c
Sources: Altuna 1972, Diez Fernandez-Lomana et al. 1995, Sanchez-Marco 2007b, Villalta 1964
Date: LP Magdalenian (14C=11600-13270 BP)
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Clangula hyemalis, Aquila sp., Lagopus mutus, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Sánchez-Marco, Villalta

SP 15 + 65 Bora Gran d'en Carreras (Gerona)

Alt: 200 Type: c
Sources: Sánchez in litt., Garcia i Petit 1995,1997,2002, Sanchez-Marco in litt., 2007, Villalta 1964, Vilette 1983, Wolf 1938-41 (Cazurro 1919, Estevez 1979, Harlé 1882, 1909)
Date: LP LG Magdalenian-Azilian
Fauna: Anser/Branta sp. Circus sp., Otis tarda, Tetrax tetrax, Otididae sp.
Det.: Milne-Edwards
Date: LP LG Magdalenian-Azilian
Fauna: Columba livia, Coturnix coturnix, Alectoris graeca, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Villalta
Date: LP LG Magdalenien superieur 14C=11470±500 BP
Fauna: Perdix perdix, Columba oenas, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Vilette
Date: LP LG Magdalenien superieur 14C=11470±500 BP
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det.: Estevez
Date: LP LG Late Solutrean 14C=17720±920, 17320±290 BP
Fauna: Ciconia ciconia, Anatidae, Anser/Branta sp., Anser sp., Anser anser, Mergus merganser, Accipitridae, Haliaeetus albicilla, Buteo sp., Aquila sp., Aquila chrysaetos, Phasianidae, Perdicinae, Perdix perdix, Grus grus, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Numenius arquata, Larus sp., Columba sp., Columba livia, Bubo bubo, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone, Corvus corax
Det.: Garcia i Petit
Date: LP
Fauna: Alectoris/Perdix sp., Coturnix coturnix, Scolopax rusticola
Det: Sanchez-Marco
Notes: A. k. a. Gruta de Serinya, La Bora Gran.

SP 16 Brechas de la Cantera de l'Altissent (Barcelona)

Type: c
Sources: Daura & Sanz 2003, Villalta 1964, Sanchez-Marco 2002, 2007
Date: LP Early LP IS 5
Fauna: Hieraaetus fasciatus, Columba oenas, Columba livia/oenas, Strix aluco, Athene noctua, Asio flammeus, Dendrocopos major, Certhia cffamiliaris, Serinus serinus, Carduelis flammea, Fringilla coelebs
Det.: Villalta
Notes: A. k. a. Castelldefels, Ca n'Aymerich

SP 19 Casablanca I (Castello)

Type: c
Sources: Mourer-Chauviré & Sánchez-Marco 1988, Sánchez-Marco 1996,2001, 2007
Date: LPl/EP MN17/18 1.6-2.7 MA "Villafranchien moyen"
Layer: 6
Fauna: Tyto balearica
Layer: 6-8
Fauna: Geronticus eremita
Layer: 7
Fauna: Geronticus eremita
Layer: 8
Fauna: Geronticus eremita, Gypaetus barbatus, Pyrrhocorax/Corvus sp., Corvus corone
Layer: Unknown
Fauna: Pterocles orientalis, Pyrrhocorax/Corvus sp.
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré, Sánchez-Marco
Notes: A. k. a. Almenara I

SP 21 Cova Negra de Bellus (Valencia)

Alt: 200 Type: c
Sources: Eastham 1988,1989,1998,2001,2005, Sanchez-Marco 2007b, Villalta 1964
Date: LP probably Mousterian
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Alectoris graeca/rufa, Columba livia/oenas, Upupa epops, Apus melba, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Sanchez-Marco, Vicente
Date: LP Würm I-II, Mousterian
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Anas penelope, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Anas querquedula, Falco tinnunculus, Falco naumanni, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Scolopax rusticola, Gallinago gallinago, Columba livia, Apus apus, Apus melba, Asio otus, Strix sp., Bubo bubo , Glaucidium passerinum, Otus scops, Athene noctua, Aegolius funereus, Motacilla alba, Oenanthe oenanthe, Oenanthe leucura, Monticola solitarius, Turdus merula/torquatus, Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, Oriolus oriolus, Pica pica, Corvus sp., Pyrrhocorax sp., Emberiza calandra
Det.: Eastham

SP 24 Cova de Son Maiol (Mallorca)

Type: c
Sources: Alcover et al. 1981, Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1977, Segui 1996, 1999
Date: LP, Early Würm 70-80 KA BP
Fauna: Accipiter nisus, Corvus monedula, Turdus sp., Turdus cf viscivorus, Pica cf moureri
Notes: A. k. a. Cova de Son Mayol.

SP 28 Cova des Cendres (Alicante)

Alt: 50 Type: c
Sources: Hernandez 1993, Sanchez Marco 2004, Tortosa t al. 2002, (Badal et al. 1991, Villaverde et al. 1997)
Layer: I Date: LP LG Upper Magdalenian
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Calidris ferruginea, Columba livia/oenas, Pyrrhocorax sp.
Layer: II Date: LP LG Upper Magdalenian, 14C=12,660-12,950 BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Haematopus ostralegus, Columba livia/oenas, Lullula arborea, Turdus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: III Date: LP LG Upper Magdalenian 14C=12650±80 BP
Fauna: Aquila chrysaetos, Accipiter nisus, Alectoris rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Columba livia/oenas, Bubo bubo, Apus apus, Turdus sp., Turdus cf viscivorus, Turdus cf merula, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus monedula, Corvus corone
Layer: IX-X
Date: LP LG 14C=13,320±170 BP
Fauna: Haematopus ostralegus, Calidris ferruginea
Layer: XI
Date: LP, 13,840±85 BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: Unknown
Fauna: Anser/Branta sp., cf Branta bernicla, Falco naumanni, Athene noctua, Sylvia sp.,
Notes: A. k a. Cueva de Cendres.

SP 29 Cova des Moro (Mallorca)

Alt: 10 Type: c
Sources: Alcover 2001, Alcover et al. 1981, Segui 1997
Date: LP
Fauna: Columba livia/oenas, Hirundidae sp., Motacilla alba, Erithacus rubecula, Turdus sp., Sylvia melanocephala/curruca, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Loxia curvirostra, cf Milaria calandra
Stored: MNCM
Det: Segui

SP 30 Cueto de la Mina (Asturias)

Alt: 35 Type: c
Sources: Hernandez in litt., Sanchez-Marco 2007b
Date: LP Magdalenian 14C=11630±120,11650±190 BP
Fauna: Anatidae, Aquila cf chrysaetos, Uria aalge, Asio flammeus
Det.: Hernandez
Layer: B
Date: LP LG
Fauna: Perdix perdix, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: D
Date: LP Lascaux-Dryas I
Fauna: Lagopus mutus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: E
Date: LP Laugerie and stadial between Laugerie and Lascaux
Fauna: Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Melanitta perspicillata, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Pluvialis squatarola, Larus canus, Columba livia/oenas, Asio flammeus, Lanius excubitor, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax
Layer: G
Date: LP Later part of Tursac and the following stadial
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Buteo/Circus sp., Charadriiformes sp., Pluvialis apricaria, Tringa melanoleuca, Strix aluco, Turdus pilaris, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax
Layer: H
Date: LP, Tursac interstadial
Fauna: Anas sp., Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus; Perdix perdix, Pluvialis apricaria, Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris maritima,, Tringa melanoleuca, Asio flammea, Montifringilla nivalis, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax
Layer: Unknown
Fauna: Pterodroma mollis, Puffinus sp., Cygnus sp., Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Vanellus vanellus, Pluvialis apricaria, Calidris ferruginea, Uria aalge, Asio flammeus, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax
Det: Sanchez-Marco

SP 34 Cueva de Ambrosio (Almería)

Alt: 1060 Type: c
Sources: Sánchez-Marco 1988, 2007
Layer: I (=Nivel 6.1-6.3)
Date: LP Solutrean
Fauna: Falco naumanni, Alectoris rufa, Columba livia/oenas, Athene noctua, Carduelis carduelis, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: II (=Nivel 5)
Date: LP Solutrean 14C= 16,500±280 BP
Fauna: Falco naumanni, Alectoris rufa, Columba livia/oenas, Athene noctua, Hirundo rustica, Petronia petronia, Pica pica/Corvus monedula, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: III (=Nivel 4)
Date: LP Solutrean
Fauna: Hirundo rustica, Prunella collaris, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: IV (=Nivel 3)
Date: LP Solutrean 14C = 16,620±280 BP
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Columba livia/oenas, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: V (=Nivel 2.3)
Date: LP Solutrean
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: VI (=Nivel 2.2)
Date: LP Solutrean 14C = 16,590±1,400 BP
Fauna: Columba livia/oenas
Layer: VIIa (= Nivel 2.1)
Date: LP Solutrean
Fauna: Columba livia/oenas
Layer: VIIb (= Nivel 1)
Date: LP Solutrean
Fauna: Columba livia/oenas
Det.: Sánchez-Marco

SP 44 Cueva de Valdegoba (Burgos)

Alt: 930 Type: c
Sources: Diez et al. 1988-89, Hernandez 1993, Quam et al. 2001, Sanchez-Marco 2004, 2007
Date: LP Mousterian, IS 4
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas platyrhynchos/acuta, Anas querquedula, Somateria sp., Milvus migrans, Gypaetus barbatus, Gyps fulvus, Aegypius monachus, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Buteo lagopus, Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Alectoris graeca, Coturnix coturnix, Otis tetrax, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Caprimulgus sp., Athene noctua, Alauda arvensis, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica, Anthus spinoletta, Prunella collaris, Prunella modularis, Oenanthe oenanthe, Turdus sp., Muscicapa striata, Emberiza calandra, Emberiza citrinella, Acanthis cf. cannabina, Pinicola enucleator, Petronia petronia, Sturnus sp., Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Sánchez-Marco

SP 46 Cueva de el Parco (Lérida)

Type: c
Alt: 420
Sources: Hernandez 1993, Bergadà Zapata 1998
Layer: Undifferentiated Date: LP/Hol Epipalaeolithic
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Athene noctua, Columba livia, Turdus sp., Turdus viscivorus, Fringilla sp., Miliaria calandra, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: N. sup
Fauna: Pica pica
Layer: N.I
Date: 14C=10,190±100-10,930±100 BP
Fauna: Alectoris rufa
Layer: N.II
Date: 14C=10,390±300 BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pica pica
Layer: N.IV Int. cueva        Date: 14C=12,900±130 BP
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Pyrrhocorax graculus, cf Turdus iliacus
Layer: N.VI. Int. cueva        Date: 14C=13,950±150 BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus
N.X. Int. cueva
Date: (N.VII) 14c=14,040±140 (N.XI) 14C=14,300±150 BP
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax graculus, cf Miliaria calandra
Det.: Hernandez
Notes: A. k. a. Cueva del Parco

SP 50 Cueva del Toll (Barcelona)

Type: c
Sources: Villalta 1964, Sanchez-Marco 2007b, (Estevez 1979)
Date: LP, Würm I-IIb. Mousterian
Fauna: Aquila sp., Lagopus mutus, Alectoris barbara, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Otis tetrax,Columba livia/oenas, Nyctea scandiaca, Strix aluco, Luscinia luscinia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus corax
Det.: Villalta, Sanchez-Marco

SP 52 Cuevona (Asturias)

Type: c
Sources: Sánchez-Marco 1986, 2007a
Date: LP LG Magdalenian
Fauna: Gyps melitensis, Bubo bubo
Det.: Sánchez-Marco
Stored: MNCN
Notes: A. k. a. La Cuevona

SP 53 Devil's Tower (Gibraltar)

Type: c
Sources: Breuil 1922, Cooper 2005, Garrod et al. 1928, Lambrecht 1933, Stewart 2007, Villalta 1964, Wolf 1938-41
Date: LP Mousterian 14C >30 000 BP
Fauna: Puffinus puffinus, Calonectris diomedea, Phalacrocorax carbo?, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Melanitta fusca?, Mergus cf serrator, Haliaeetus albicilla, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Hieraaetus pennatus, Gyps fulvus, Falco naumanni?, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Falco tinnunculus, Alectoris barbara, Alectoris rufa?, Larus fuscus, Sterna sandvicensis?, Pinguinus impennis, Uria aalge, Columba livia, Columba oenas, Columba palumbus, Picus viridis, Apus melba, Hirundo rustica, Turdus sp. Turdus cf merula, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Fringilla cf coelebs, Passer sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det.: Bate
Fauna: Branta leucopsis?, Aegypius monachus, Haliaeetus sp., Falco columbarius, Falco tinnunculus, Alectoris rufa, Vanellus vanellus, Columba livia, Strix aluco, Apus melba, Hirundo rustica, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor, Pyrrhocorax graculus?
Det.: Newton
Fauna: Calonectris diomedea, Puffinus ?mauretanicus, cf Aythya fuligula, Somateria sp., Melanitta nigra, Clangula hyemalis, Mergus cf merganser, Mergus cf serrator, Alectoris sp., Falco naumanni, Falco cf tinnunculus, Columba livia/oenas, Alle alle, Pinguinus impennis,Uria aalge, Alca torda, Fratercula arctica, cf Strix aluco, Apus melba, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det: Cooper
Notes: The deposits possibly span the interval c. 30-85 KA BP, A. k. a. Forbes quarry.

SP 55 El Castillo (Santander)

Alt: 175 Type: c
Sources: Cabrera 1984, Sanchez Marco 2006
Layer: 7 Date: LP Magdalenian between "A" and "B"
Fauna: Aquila sp., Corvus monedula
Layer: 8 Date: LP Magdalenian "Beta" 14C=16850±220 BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Athene sp.?, Corvus monedula
Layer: 12 Date: LP Aurignacian "Alfa"
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus mutus, Bonasa bonasia, Corvus monedula
Layer: 13 Date: LP between Aurignacian "Alfa" and "Beta"
Fauna: Anas sp., Anas crecca, Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus mutus, Asio flammeus, Pyrrhocorax sp., Corvus sp., Corvus corax, Garrulus glandarius
Layer: 14 Date: LP Aurignacian "Beta"
Fauna: Branta bernicla?, Anas platyrhynchos, Aquila sp., Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax sp., Corvus monedula, Corvus corax
Layer: 16 Upper "Capa de Redores” Date: LP Top of Aurignacian "G"
Fauna: Anas sp., Anas clypeata, Anas penelope, Anas crecca, Melanitta fusca, Falco tinnunculus, Bonasa bonasia, Lagopus mutus, Vanellus vanellus, Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris sp., Calidris alpina, Larus marinus, Columba livia, Bubo bubo, Strix aluco, Asio flammeus, Cinclus cinclus, Pyrrhocorax sp., Garrulus glandarius, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Fringilla montifringilla, Miliaria calandra
Layer: 16 Date: LP Aurignacian "G"
Fauna: Melanitta nigra, Aegypius monachus, Aquila sp., Corvus corax
Date: LP Lower Aurignacian "G"
Fauna:, Anas sp., Anas crecca, Mergus serrator, Falco tinnunculus, Bonasa bonasia, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Crex crex, Fulica cristata, Vanellus vanellus, Calidris canutus, Larus ridibundus, Sterna hirundo, Alle alle, Columba livia, Bubo bubo, Asio flammeus, Turdus pilaris?, Turdus iliacus?, Cinclus cinclus, Pyrrhocorax sp., Corvus monedula, Corvus corax, Sturnus vulgaris, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Plectrophenax nivalis
Layer: "Rodent 2" (=16d) Date: LP Base of Aurignacian "G"
Fauna: Turdus philomelos, Corvus sp., Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Layer: 18 Date: LP Aurignacian "Delta" 14C=36200±4100-41100±1700 BP
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Aquila sp., Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Scolopax rusticola, Stercorarius pomarinus, Pica pica, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Sanchez Marco, Vaufrey, Fischer & Newton
Layer: 18B Date: LP Aurignacian
Fauna: Anatidae sp., cf Perdix perdix, Columba livia/oenas, Riparia riparia, Corvidae sp., Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: 18C Date: LP Aurignacian
Fauna: Falco cf tinnunculus, Rallus aquaticus, Charadrius dubius, Calidris ferruginea, Asio sp., Columba livia/oenas, Galerida cristata, Oenanthe leucura, Carduelis carduelis, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det: Sanchez Marco
Layer: 20 Date: LP Mousterian "A" 14C=39300±1900, 43300±2900 BP (layer 20b2)
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Corvus monedula, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Det.: Newton
Layer: 22 Date: LP Mousterian "B" 70100±9400, 70,400±9,600 BP
Fauna: Aegypius monachus?, Pyrrhocorax sp.
Det.: Newton
Layer: 24 Date: MP? Acheulean
Fauna: Corvus monedula
Notes: A. k. a. Cueva del Castillo.

SP 58 El Salt (Alicante)

Type: c
Sources: Eastham 1989,1998,2001
Date: LP Mousterian
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Alectoris rufa, Columba sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Det.: Eastham
Notes: Near Alcoy

SP 61 Es Pouàs (Eivissa)

Alt: 236 Type: c
Sources: Alcover 2001, Alcover et al. 1981,1992,2005, Alcover & Bover 2002, Alcover & Mc Minn 1992,1994, Florit et al. 1989, McMinn, Palmer & Alcover 2005, Moyà-Solà et al. 1984, Sondaar et al. 1995, J A Alcover pers. com.
Date: LP, c. 30 KA BP - Holocene c. 6 KA BP
Fauna: Calonectris diomedea, Puffinus mauretanicus, Procellaridae n. sp., Hydrobates pelagicus, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Anser n. sp. aff erythropus, Branta sp., Anas crecca, Haliaeetus albicilla, Circus cyaneus, Pandion haliaetus, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Coturnix coturnix, Rallus eivissensis, Crex crex, Porzana porzana, Grus grus, Otis tarda, Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadrius cf morinellus, Charadrius sp., Pluvialis sp., Vanellus vanellus, Numenius arquata, Gallinago gallinago, Scolopax rusticola, Columba livia, Columba palumbus, Cuculus canorus, Bubo bubo, Otus scops, Asio flammeus, Strigidae n. sp., Apus apus/pallidus, Coracias garrulus, Upupa epops, Caprimulgus sp., Alauda arvensis, Galerida cristata/theklae, Calandrella sp., Hirundo sp., Phoenicurus sp., Erithacus rubecula, Turdus n. sp., Ficedula sp., Lanius minor, Lanius excubitor, Lanius senator, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Corvus cf corone, Corvus monedula, Corvus corax, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Carduelis cannabina, Carduelis chloris, Montifringilla nivalis, Fringilla sp., Petronia petronia, Passer domesticus, Miliaria calandra
Det: Alcover
Stored: MNIB

SP 62 Genista Cave (Gibraltar)

Type: c
Sources: Hernandez 1993, 2001, Wolf 1938-41
Date: LP/Hol Middle Palaeolithic - Holocene
Fauna: Gavia sp., Puffinus puffinus, Aegypius sp., Phasianus sp., Columba livia

SP 64 Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar)

Type: c
Sources: Cooper 2005, Eastham 1968,1989, Finlayson et al. 2006, 2007, Sanchez-Marco 2007a.
Layer: A Date: LP/Hol
Fauna: Aythya fuligula, Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Falco peregrinus, Fulica atra, Fratercula arctica, Columba livia, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Emberiza sp.
Layer: A2 Date: LP/Hol
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Fratercula arctica
Layer: B1 Date: LP UP "Magdalenian"
Fauna: Puffinus puffinus yelkouan, Haliaeetus albicilla, Falco tinnunculus, Himantopus cf himantopus, Charadrius cf dubius, Fratercula arctica, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Fringilla coelebs
Layer: B2 Date: LP UP Perigordian
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Falco tinnunculus, Alectoris rufa, Columba livia, Corvus corone
Layer: D1 Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=27860±300,28710±200 BP
Fauna: Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Falco peregrinus, Alectoris rufa, Larus fuscus, Larus argentatus, Columba livia, Bubo bubo, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor, Corvus corone, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Fringilla coelebs
Layer: D2 Date: LP Aurignacian 14C=27860±200,28710±200 BP
Fauna: Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Alectoris rufa, Columba livia, Hirundo rustica, Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor, Fringilla coelebs
Layer: E Date: LP UP
Fauna: Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Alectoris rufa, Fratercula arctica, Columba livia, Turdus viscivorus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Emberiza sp.
Layer: F1 Date: LP UP
Fauna: Gyps fulvus, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Milvus milvus, Columba livia, Corvus corone, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor
Layer: F2 Date: LP earliest UP (F2 is the lowest Upper Paleolithic layer)
Fauna: Ciconia ciconia, Alectoris rufa, Gyps fulvus, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Milvus milvus, Columba livia, Corvus corone, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor
Layer: G Date: LP Mousterian 14C=49200±3200,47700±1500,>47000 BP, Würm II, IS 3
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Ciconia ciconia, Clangula hyemalis, Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Falco peregrinus, Alectoris graeca, Alectoris rufa, Fulica atra, Columba livia, Turdus viscivorus, Sturnus vulgaris/unicolor, Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: J/J2 Date: LP Würm I/II, mid IS 3?
Fauna: Corvus corax, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Notes: Cave uninhabited due to high sea level.
Layer: K Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, IS 3?
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Ardea cf purpurea, Tadorna ferruginea, Netta rufina, Aythya fuligula, Clangula hyemalis, Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Alectoris rufa, Haematopus ostralegus, Larus fuscus, Pinguinus impennis, Alle alle, Columba livia, Bubo bubo, Strix sp., Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: M Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, IS 3?
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Aythya nyroca, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta fusca, Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Falco tinnunculus, Fulica atra, Anthropoides virgo, Haematopus ostralegus, Larus ridibundus, Columba livia, Bubo bubo, Corvus corax, Corvus corone, Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: N Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, IS 3?
Fauna: Netta rufina, Milvus milvus, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: P Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, IS 3?
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Gyps fulvus, Fulica atra, Columba livia, Corvus corax, Corvus corone, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: Q Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, late IS 4?
Fauna: Milvus milvus, Alectoris rufa, Hirundo rustica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: R Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, IS 4?
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Gyps fulvus, Milvus milvus, Alectoris rufa, Larus fuscus, Columba livia, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Layer: S Date: LP Mousterian, Würm I, early IS 4?
Fauna: Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Anas platyrhynchos, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Strix sp., Corvus corone
Det.: Eastham Stored: A. Eastham private coll.
Layer: unknown
Fauna: Fulmarus glacialis, Pterodroma sp., Calonectris diomedea, Puffinus ?mauretanicus, Hydrobates pelagicus, Tadorna tadorna, cf Aythya fuligula, Somateria sp., Melanitta fusca, Melanitta nigra, Clangula hyemalis, Falco naumanni, Alectoris sp., Falco naumanni, Pinguinus impennis, Alca torda, Fratercula arctica, Columba cf livia, Columba livia/oenas, Bubo bubo, Apus apus/pallidus, Upupa epops, Hirundo sp., Cyanopica cyanus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax,Corvus corone/frugilegus
Det: Cooper Stored: Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, London
Layer: III Date: UP Solutrean, 14C 16,420-18,440 BP
Fauna: Coturnix coturnix, Alectoris rufa, Gyps fulvus, Gyps melitensis, Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus, Falco naumanni, Apus apus, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Hirundo rustica, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Fringilla coelebs
Layer: IV
Date: LP Mousterian, 14C 23.780-32,560 BP
Fauna: Gavia stellata, Calonectris diomedea, Sula bassana, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Plegadis falcinellus, Geronticus eremita, Melanitta nigra, Milvus migrans, Milvus milvus, Buteo buteo. Buteo lagopus, Haliartus albicilla, Aquila chrysaetos, Gyps melitensis, Gyps fulvus, Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Coturnix coturnix, Alectoris rufa, Numenius phaeopus, Limosa limosa, Calidris maritima, Himantopus himantopus, Pinguinus impennis, Columba livia, Apus apus, Apus melba, Otus scops, Galerida cristata, Lullula arborea, Hirundo rustica, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Motacilla alba, Anthus spinoletta, Anthus campestris, Anthus pratensis, Prunella collaris, Erithacus rubecula, Phoenicurus ochruros, Oenanthe hispanica, Ficedula hypoleuca, Parus major, Fringilla coelebs, Carduelis chloris, Acanthis flammea, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Emberiza citrinella, Emberiza calandra
Det: Sanchez Marco
Notes: The stratigraphy at this site as published is questionable (J Cooper pers. com.).

SP 66 Huéscar-1 (Granada)

Type: o?
Sources: Sánchez-Marco 1989, 2002, 2004
Date: EP/MP, MNQ 20/21
Fauna: Tachybaptus ruficollis, Tadorna sp., Anas crecca, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Anas acuta/strepera, cf Netta rufina, Aythya sp., Aythya nyroca, Melanitta nigra, Mergus serrator, cf Perdix sp., Coturnix coturnix, Bubo bubo
Det.: Sánchez-Marco

SP 67 Barranca de la Barca, Jandia Peninsula, Fuerteventura (Canaries)

Alt: 40 Type: o
Sources: Walker, Wragg & Harrison 1990, Michaux, Hutterer & Lopez-Martinez 1991
Date: LP 14C=32100±1100 BP
Fauna: Puffinus holeae
Det.: Walker

SP 68 La Riera (Asturias)

Alt: 30 Type: c
Sources: Eastham 1986b, Sanchez-Marco 2007b
Layer: 27
Date: LP LG Azilian/Terminal Magdalenian 14C=10,690-12,270 BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis/brachyrhynchus, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas querquedula, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Perdix perdix, Garrulus glandarius, Miliaria calandra
Layer: 26
Date: LP LG Upper Magdalenian 14C=11,450±85 BP
Fauna: Phalacrocorax carbo, Anser fabalis/brachyrhynchus, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Somateria mollissima, Strix aluco, Turdus merula, Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus
Layer: 25
Date: LP LG Upper Magdalenian
Fauna: Anas acuta
Layer: 24
Date: LP LG Upper Magdalenian 14C=10,890-11,480 BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis/brachyrhynchus, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Lagopus mutus, Parus major, Garrulus glandarius
Det.: Eastham
Layer: Unknown
Date: LP, 10-25 KA BP
Fauna: Falco tinnunculus, Lagopus mutus, Perdix perdix, Pluvialis apricaria, Sturnus sp., Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax
Det: Sanchez-Marco

SP 74 Pedrera de S'Onix (Mallorca)

Type: c
Sources: Alcover et al. 1981,2005, Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1980, Segui 1996,1999,2001, Sondaar et al. 1995
Date: LPl/EP 1.64-1.80 MA BP
Fauna: cf Calonectris diomedea, Cygnus cf cygnus, Bucephala cf clangula, Aegypius cf monachus, Coturnix cf coturnix, cf Porzana porzana, Scolopax rusticola, Tyto balearica, Otus scops, Dendrocopos cf major, Melanocorypha cf calandra, cf Lullula arborea, Troglodytes cf troglodytes, Prunella cf modularis, Erithacus cf rubecula, Turdus cf merula, Turdus cf iliacus/philomelos, Turdus iliacus, Muscicapa cf striata, Sylvia sp., Sylvia cf atricapilla, cf Phylloscopus sp., Regulus cf ignicapillus, Aegithalos cf caudatus, Parus cf cristatus, Parus cf ater, Parus cf major, Fringilla cf coelebs, Carduelis cf carduelis, Carduelis carduelis/cannabina, Carduelis chloris, Coccothraustes cf coccothraustes, Pica moureri, cf Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhocorax cf pyrrhocorax, Corvus pliocaenus
Det.: Mourer-Chauviré, Alcover, Segui
Stored: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Baléares

SP 75 Pinilla del Valle (Madrid)

Sources: Sánchez pers com., Bochenski 2007
Date: MP Late MP, IS 7
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Tadorna ferruginea, Falco tinnunculus, Falco naumanni, aff Lagopus sp., Alectoris cf rufa, Coturnix coturnix, Lullula arborea, Galerida cristata, Galerida cf theklae, Galerida sp., Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Anthus spinoletta, Lanius senator, cf Prunella collaris, Oenanthe sp., Turdus cf torquatus, Turdus viscivorus, Emberiza cf melanocephala, Corvus corone, Corvus sp.
Det.: Bochenski
Stored: Departemento de Paleontología de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

SP 76 Reclau Viver (Gerona)

Type: c
Sources: Villalta 1964, Garcia i Petit 2002
Date: LP Solutrean 14C=13300±600 BP, 14C=14750-18700 BP (Perigordien-Aurignacian) (too young?)
Fauna: Ardea cinerea, Gyps fulvus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo, Alectoris graeca, Alectoris barbara, Perdix perdix, Otis tarda, Columba livia,Otus scops, Bubo bubo, Garrulus glandarius, Pica pica, Corvus corax, Corvus monedula, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Det.: Villalta, Garcia i Petit?

SP 82 Torralba (Soria)

Type: o
Sources: Mourer-Chauviré 1979b, Sánchez 1990, 1999, 2005, 2007 (Aguirre & Fuentes 1969)
Date: MP Acheulean, IS 9/11?
Fauna: Tadorna ferruginea, Anatidae sp. Mergus serrator, Porphyrio porphyrio
Det.: Sánchez-Marco, Fuentes

SP 84 Barranc de Binigaus (Minorca)

Type: c
Sources: Alcover et al. 1981, McMinn et al. 1997, Mourer-Chauviré et al 1980
Date: EP/LPl MN 18
Fauna: Coturnix cf coturnix, cf Lymnocryptes minimus, Tyto balearica
Det: Mourer-Chauviré, Alcover
Stored: Museum de Histoire Naturelle des Balèares

SP 87 Davant Pau (Serinya)

Type: c
Sources: Garcia i Petit 1995b,c
Date: LP UP, Post-Solutrean
Fauna: Pyrrhocorax sp./Corvus monedula
Det: Garcia Petit
Notes: A. k. a. Cova d'en Pau, cau d'en Paquito, Pau II-IV

SP 90 Jarama VI (Guadalajara)

Type: c
Sources: Alvarez et al. 1995, Arribas Herrera & Jordá Pardo 1999, Sanchez-Marco 2007b
Layer: 1 Date: LP 14C=23380±500 BP
Fauna: Falco sp., Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Columba livia/oenas, Bubo bubo, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corax
Layer: 1-2
Fauna: Falco sp.
Layer: 2
Date: LP Mousterian 14C=32600±1860, 29500±2700 BP (upper part)
Fauna: Falco sp., Alectoris rufa, Pica pica, Pyrrhocorax graculus
Unstratified
Fauna: Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Det: Sánchez Marco

SP 91 Tossal de la Roca (Alicante)

Type: c Alt: 668
Sources: Sánchez Marco 1995b, 2007
Layer: I
Date: LP LG Epipalaeolithic, Alleröd?
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Tyto alba, Bubo bubo, Strix aluco, Sturnus sp., Pyrrhocorax graculus
Layer: II
Date: LP LG 14C=12480±210,12390±250 BP, Late Magdalenian
Fauna: Alectoris rufa
Layer: III
Date: LP Bölling, Late Magdalenian
Fauna: Alectoris rufa, Athene noctua, Strix aluco, Hirundo rupestris, Corvidae sp.
Layer: IV
Date: LP UP 14C=15360±100 BP
Fauna: Pica pica
Det: Sánchez Marco


SYRIA

SY 2 Tell Mureybet

Alt: 290 Type: o
Sources: Gourichon 2004, Pichon 1984
Layer: IA
Date: LP, Late Natufian 10200-10590 BP
Fauna: Podiceps nigricollis, Ardea cinerea, Egretta garzetta, Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Anser sp., Anas penelope, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Aythya marila, Bucephala clangula, Mergus albellus, Milvus sp., Halaetus albicillas, Circus sp., Circus aeruginosus, Accipiter nisus/brevipes, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Aquila clanga, Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila sp., Falco naumanni, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco sp., Francolinus francolinus, Porzana porzana, Grus grus, Abnthropoides virgo, Otis tarda, Tringa totanus, Tringa nebularia, Philomachus pugnax, Columba livia/oenas, Columba oenas, Streptopelia sp., Bubo bubo, Asio flammeus, Asio sp., Athene noctua, Strigidae sp., Pica pica, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Layer: IB, IIA-IIB
Date: LP, Khiamian 10,000-10200 BP
Fauna: Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Botaurus stellaris, Ardea cinerea, Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Anser sp., Anas penelope, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Aythya marila, Bucephala clangula, Mergus albellus, Mergus sp., Pandion haliaetus, Milvus migrans, Milvus sp., Neophron percnopterus, Gyps fulvus, cf Circaetus gallicus, Circus sp., Circus aeruginosus, Accipiter nisus/brevipes, Accipiter gentilis, Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Buteo sp., Aquila clanga, Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila sp., Hieraetus fasciatus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco columbarius, Falco subbuteo, Falco peregrinus, Falco sp., Perdix perdix, Alectoris chukar, Francolinus francolinus, Coturnix coturnix, Porzana porzana, Fulica atra, Grus grus, Anthropoides virgo, Tetrax tetrax, Otis tarda, Vanellus spinosus, Philomachus pugnax, Gallinago gallinago, Limosa limosa, Numenius arquata, Columba oenas, Columba livia/oenas, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Streptopelia sp., Bubo bubo, Asio flammeus, Asio sp., Athene noctua, Strigidae sp., Coracias garrulus, Pica pica, Corvus corone/frugilegus, Passeriformes sp.
Det.: Gourichon, Pichon


UNITED KINGDOM


UK 3 Bacon Hole (Glamorgan)

Alt: 12 Type: c
Sources: Harrison 1977a,1987, Stringer et al. 1986 , Stewart 2007
Layer: H, I
Date: MIS 5a or 5c
Fauna: Sturnus cf unicolor
Det: Stewart
Layer: 2 (G) Date: LP IS 5e Ipswichian s. s. later part, >87 KA BP
Fauna: Anser fabalis, Falco subbuteo, Pluvialis apricaria, Sturnus vulgaris
Layer: D-F (3-4) Date: LP Ipswichian s. s. (IS 5e) U/Th 116-129 KA BP
Fauna: Calonectris diomedea, Milvus milvus, Calidris alpina, Arenaria interpres, Alca torda, Alauda arvensis, Hirundo rustica, Oenanthe oenanthe, Turdus merula/torquata, Sturnus vulgaris, Corvus corone/frugilegus
Det.: Harrison Stored: BMNH
Notes: Clangula hyemalis mentioned by Harrison 1977a but not 1987

UK 17 Creag nan Uamh cave (Sutherland)

Type: c
Sources: Eastham 1995a, Lambrecht 1933, Newton 1917, Stewart 1999, 2007, Wolf 1938-41
Layer: 3 or 5 Date: LP LG?
Fauna: Cygnus cf olor, Branta leucopsis, Anas cf platyrhynchos, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta fusca, Melanitta nigra, Lagopus mutus, Pluvialis apricaria, Fratercula arctica
Layer: 5 Date: LP LG?
Fauna: Anas penelope, Anas crecca, Clangula hyemalis, Aythya fuligula, Melanitta nigra, Somateria mollissima, Lagopus mutus, Pluvialis squatarola, Alle alle, Fringilla cf coelebs
Layer; ? Date; LP
Fauna: Uria aalge, Cepphus grylle, Alle alle, Fratercula arctica
Det.: Newton, Eastham
Stored: Geological Survey Museum
Notes: A. k. a. Alt nan Uamh. 14C date on reindeer antler in one of the Creag Nan Uamh caves gave a date of 10080±70 BP but recent, as yet unpublished, 14C-dates indicates that some of the remains may be of Mid-Devensian age (Anne Eastham in. litt.).

UK 44 Minchin Hole (Glamorgan)

Alt: 15 Type: c
Sources: Harrison 1977a,1987, Stewart 2007
Layer: Bone Horizon Date: LP Ipswichian s. s. (IS 5e), 107-127 KA BP
Fauna: Calidris alpina, Alca torda, Alauda arvensis, Sturnus cf unicolor
Det.: Harrison, Stewart
Stored: BMNH

UK 48 Ossom's Cave (Staffordshire)

Alt: 250 Type: c
Sources: Bramwell 1960b, Jackson 1962, Stewart 1999, Stuart 1982
Date: LP LG Late Devensian, Dryas 3 14C=10590±70,10780±160,10600±140 BP.
Layer: C
Fauna: Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Tetrao tetrix, Buteo cf buteo, Crex crex, Bubo bubo, Turdus viscivorus, Corvus monedula
Det.: Bramwell Stored: Stoke City Museum
Notes: Bramwell and Jackson also report Pluvialis sp., Calidris alpina, Strix aluco, Anthus sp. and Corvus corax , but these are probably Holocene. A. k. a. Ossum's Cave

UK 68 West Runton (Suffolk)

Alt: 5 Type: o
Sources: Bell 1915, Harrison 1979c,1985, Lambrecht 1933, Mlíkovský 2002, Newton 1880,1891, Stewart 1999, Stuart 1975
Layer: Upper Freshwater Bed
Date: MP Cromerian s. s., pollen zone Cr II, 450-500 KA BP (IS 15?)
Fauna: Phalacrocorax carbo, Cygnus columbianus, Anser anser, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas penelope, Netta rufina, Aythya fuligula, Aythya ferina, Bucephala clangula, Mergus serrator, Mergus albellus, Aix galericulata, Somateria mollissima, Gallinula chloropus, Tringa ochropus, Turdus cf merula, Turdus philomelos, Turdus iliacus, Sitta europaea, Sturnus/Turdus sp. Garrulus cf glandarius
Det.: Newton, Harrison, Stewart

UK 69 Westbury-sub-Mendip (Somerset)

Alt: 240 Type: c
Sources: Andrews 1990, Stewart 1999
Layer: 11/4 Date: MP Post-Cromerian, probably IS 12/13
Fauna: Athene noctua, Asio flammeus
Layer: 15/5 Date: MP Post-Cromerian, probably IS 12/13
Fauna: Anas platyrhynchos, Lagopus cf lagopus, Bonasa bonasia, Gallinago media
Layer: ? Date: MP Post-Cromerian, probably IS 12/13
Fauna: Lagopus cf lagopus, Athene noctua, Hirundo rustica, Sturnus/Turdus sp.
Det.: Harrison, Stewart

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Part 2, New Sites (322)


Part 3, References